Archive for year: 2015

What’s the Diagnosis?

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Article of the Week: Increase of Framingham CVD risk score is associated with severity of LUTS

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Giorgio Russo, discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

  • cardiovascular disease
CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

Read more articles of the week

Editorial: LUTS – an independent risk factor for CVD

Russo et al. [1] have identified LUTS as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The more severe the LUTS the more the CVD risk increased. LUTS in men is caused by a group of disorders, e.g. the metabolic syndrome and central obesity, which have similar risk factors to those that cause CVD [2]. Furthermore, LUTS is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), which is well established as being linked to silent or symptomatic CVD [3]. The question arises as to whether the age of the patient rather than the LUTS is the cause for the CVD, in other words, is the LUTS merely a bystander or coincidental problem?

The evidence, however, is accumulating that LUTS is independent of age and a risk factor for CVD [2]. A multi-disciplinary consensus looked at ED and LUTS emphasising the importance of co-diagnosis with awareness of cardiovascular risk factors being present in patients with LUTS, ED, or LUTS and ED, and reviewed the literature on the underlying pathophysiology [2].

The link between ED and LUTS was brought home by the Multinational Survey of the Aging Male (MSAM) study. Many large epidemiological studies using well-powered multivariate analyses consistently provide overwhelming evidence of a link between ED and LUTS [4].

The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the relationships between ED and LUTS have been the subject of several recent reviews [5]. The underlying mechanisms include: the alteration of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, enhancement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) signalling, autonomic hyperactivity, and pelvic atherosclerosis, secondary to endothelial dysfunction [6]. Additional contributing factors may include chronic inflammation and sex steroid ratio imbalance, all of which contribute to increased CVD risk.

LUTS, with or without ED, should trigger a search for cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic problems. In 2008, the International Journal of Impotence Research published a symposium entitled ‘Cardiac Sexology: Can we save a patient’s life and his love life?’. The recognition that urologists have an important role in the early identification of cardiovascular risk should encourage urologists to work closely with cardiologists [3].

Certainly the degree of risk recorded by Russo et al. [1] is substantially greater than one would expect from age alone. Possible mechanisms include the co-existence of inflammatory activity manifest by a raised C-reactive protein (CRP), which is commonly found in association with more severe LUTS and in turn, increased CVD risk [7]. Similarly chronic sleep disturbance, especially nocturia, is common in both LUTS and CVD, as is depression [2].

Endothelial dysfunction, which is recognised to be the major vascular risk for CVD, also occurs in LUTS that is chronic or severe usually affecting the prostate gland or bladder. There are, therefore, strong links between LUTS, ED and CVD a common denominator being increased adrenergic tone. Patients with LUTS should be asked about alternative symptoms, including ED, and screened for cardiovascular risk even if they have no cardiac symptoms. LUTS may not be as strong a risk factor as ED for CVD, but it appears to be an independent marker for increased risk, which should not be ignored. Men are reluctant to volunteer their concerns, so it is important that healthcare professionals ask the appropriate questions.

Read the full article
Graham Jackson, Mike G. Kirby* and Ray Rosen

 

St. Thomas Hospital, London, UK, *The Prostate Centre, London, UK and New England Research Institutes, Inc. (NERI), Waterto wn, MA, USA

 

References

 

 

Video: The severity of LUTS is associated with an increase of Framingham CVD risk score

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

Read more articles of the week

What’s the Diagnosis?

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Article of the Month: Effect of the Interval Between First and Second TUR on Outcomes in NMIBC

Every Month the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Ilker Gökce, discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Significance of time interval between first and second transurethral resection on recurrence and progression rates in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with maintenance intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

 

Sumer Baltacı, Murat Bozlu*, Asıf Yıldırım, Mehmet Ilker Gokce, İlker TinayGuven Aslan§, Cavit Can, Levent Turkeri,Ugur Kuyumcuoglu** and Aydın Mungan††

 

Department of Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara , *Department of Urology, University of Mersin School of Medicine, Mersin,Department of Urology, Istanbul Medeniyet University School of Medicine, ‡Department of Urology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul§Department of Urology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine Inciralti, IzmirDepartment of Urology, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir**Department of Urology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirneand ††Department of Urology, Bulent Ecevit University School of Medicine, Zonguldak, Turkey

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVES

To evaluate the effect of the interval between the initial and second transurethral resection (TUR) on the outcome of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with maintenance intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We reviewed the data of patients from 10 centres treated for high-risk NMIBC between 2005 and 2012. Patients without a diagnosis of muscle-invasive cancer on second TUR performed ≤90 days after a complete first TUR, and received at least 1 year of maintenance BCG were included in this study. The interval between first and second TUR in addition to other parameters were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of recurrence and progression.

RESULTS

In all, 242 patients were included. The mean (sd, range) follow-up was 29.4 (22.2, 12–96) months. The 3-year recurrence- and progression-free survival rates of patients who underwent second TUR between 14 and 42 days and 43–90 days were 73.6% vs 46.2% (P < 0.001) and 89.1% vs 79.1% (P = 0.006), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the interval to second TUR was found to be a predictor of both recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 3.598, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.885–8.137; P = 0.001] and progression (OR 2.144, 95% CI 1.447–5.137; P = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

The interval between first and second TUR should be ≤42 days in order to attain lower recurrence and progression rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the effect of the interval between first and second TUR on patient outcomes.

Read more articles of the week

Editorial: Is 42 days the ‘magic number’ for repeat TURBT?

Gökçe et al. [1] have evaluated a group of 242 patients from 10 centres with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who underwent repeat resection and subsequent follow-up treatment, including induction and maintenance BCG for at least 1 year. They included patients who had repeat transurethral resection (TUR) within 90 days and excluded anyone who was upstaged to T2 or who did not complete 1 year of maintenance BCG. They divided patients into two groups according to time to second TUR, Group A (14–42 days) and Group B (43–90 days). The groups were similar in terms of patient age and gender, tumour multifocality, presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS), and stage and grade. The only factors on multivariable analysis that were statistically significant predictors of recurrence were grade, associated CIS, and time to second TUR. Only grade and time to second TUR were significant predictors of progression.

Figures 1 and 2 in the paper show an enormous difference in both recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival according to time to second TUR. For both outcomes, 42 days seemed to be the ‘magic number’, since re-TUR after 42 days was associated with much worse outcome. Patients who had repeat TUR at >42 days had nearly double the rate of both recurrence and progression than those who had repeat TUR within 6 weeks.

This is quite a dramatic result, and it is hard to imagine biologically how such an effect could be explained. Second TUR has two primary objectives, to identify occult muscle-invasive disease, and to remove tumour that was inadvertently left behind at the first resection. Both of these goals have been shown to be important and to result in better outcomes compared with no repeat TUR [2]. However, in this study [1], patients who had repeat TUR at >6 weeks after the initial resection had a progression rate similar to those in prior studies who had no second TUR at all [2]. What could be occurring that would cause a delay of just a few weeks in second TUR to double the risk of subsequent progression of disease?

This is a retrospective study without centralised pathology review, and no information is available about the reasons that patients had repeat TUR at an earlier or later interval, nor about the pathological findings at the repeat TUR. One must be wary that there is significant selection bias involved. There is a hint of this in the fact that the rate of residual tumour at repeat TUR in the two groups is very different (35% vs 53%). Perhaps the later group also had a higher rate of residual invasive components on the repeat resection? Herr et al. [3] have shown that residual T1 disease on repeat TUR is highly predictive of subsequent progression. Or alternatively, perhaps it is the delay in administration of BCG that really results in the worse outcome? Patients with a longer delay to repeat TUR by definition also have at least an equivalent delay in starting BCG.

Although high-risk NMIBC can certainly be aggressive, it seems highly unlikely that a week or two-one way or another in terms of treatment would make such a huge difference in the outcome. However, this is a provocative study that remains to be validated. It will be useful to see if other groups with similar patient populations can duplicate these findings. For the time being, as a routine practice it makes sense to repeat the TUR sooner rather than later whenever possible.

Read the full article
Eila C. Skinner

 

Thomas A. Stamey Research Professor of Urology, Chair, Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

 

References

Video: Significance of time interval between first and second TUR on recurrence and progression rates in BCG-treated NMIBC

Significance of time interval between first and second transurethral resection on recurrence and progression rates in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with maintenance intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

 

Sumer Baltacı, Murat Bozlu*, Asıf Yıldırım, Mehmet Ilker Gokce, İlker TinayGuven Aslan§, Cavit Can, Levent Turkeri,Ugur Kuyumcuoglu** and Aydın Mungan††

 

Department of Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara , *Department of Urology, University of Mersin School of Medicine, Mersin,Department of Urology, Istanbul Medeniyet University School of Medicine, ‡Department of Urology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul§Department of Urology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine Inciralti, IzmirDepartment of Urology, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir**Department of Urology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirneand ††Department of Urology, Bulent Ecevit University School of Medicine, Zonguldak, Turkey

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVES

To evaluate the effect of the interval between the initial and second transurethral resection (TUR) on the outcome of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with maintenance intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We reviewed the data of patients from 10 centres treated for high-risk NMIBC between 2005 and 2012. Patients without a diagnosis of muscle-invasive cancer on second TUR performed ≤90 days after a complete first TUR, and received at least 1 year of maintenance BCG were included in this study. The interval between first and second TUR in addition to other parameters were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of recurrence and progression.

RESULTS

In all, 242 patients were included. The mean (sd, range) follow-up was 29.4 (22.2, 12–96) months. The 3-year recurrence- and progression-free survival rates of patients who underwent second TUR between 14 and 42 days and 43–90 days were 73.6% vs 46.2% (P < 0.001) and 89.1% vs 79.1% (P = 0.006), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the interval to second TUR was found to be a predictor of both recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 3.598, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.885–8.137; P = 0.001] and progression (OR 2.144, 95% CI 1.447–5.137; P = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

The interval between first and second TUR should be ≤42 days in order to attain lower recurrence and progression rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the effect of the interval between first and second TUR on patient outcomes.

Read more articles of the week

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