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Retzius‐sparing robot‐assisted radical prostatectomy: early learning curve experience in three continents

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Penile intraepithelial neoplasia, penile cancer precursors and human papillomavirus prevalence in symptomatic preputium: a cross‐sectional study of 351 circumcised men in Sweden

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Percutaneous microwave ablation of renal masses in a UK cohort

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Prognostic scoring system and risk stratification in patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis: an 11‐year prospective study at a tertiary referral centre

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia – what do we know?

Objectives

To evaluate the accuracy and completeness of surgeon‐reported radical prostatectomy outcome data across a national health system by comparison with a national dataset gathered independently from clinicians directly involved in patient care.

Patients and Methods

Data submitted by surgeons to the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) radical prostatectomy audit for all men undergoing radical prostatectomy between 2015 and 2016 were assessed by cross linkage to the National Prostate Cancer Audit (NPCA) database. Specific data items collected in both databases were selected for comparison analysis. Data completeness and agreement were assessed by percentages and Cohen’s kappa statistic.

Results

Data from 4707 men in the BAUS and NPCA databases were matched for comparison. Compared with the NPCA, dataset completeness was higher in the BAUS dataset for type of nerve‐sparing procedure (92% vs 42%) and postoperative margin status (89% vs 48%) but lower for readmission (87% vs 100%) and Charlson score (80% vs 100%). For all other variables assessed completeness was comparable. Agreement and data reliability were high for most variables. However, despite good agreement, the inter‐cohort reliability was poor for readmission, M stage and Charlson score (κ < 0.30).

Conclusions

For the first time in urology we show that surgeon‐reported data from the BAUS radical prostatectomy audit can reliably be used to benchmark peri‐operative radical prostatectomy outcomes. For comorbidity data, to assist with risk analysis, and longer‐term outcomes, NPCA routinely collected data provide a more comprehensive source.

Pyeloureteric magnetic anastomosis device to simplify laparoscopic pyeloplasty: a proof‐of‐concept study

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Editorial Board

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Rapid and precise delivery of cells in the urethral sphincter complex by a novel needle‐free waterjet technology

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Tryptophan–kynurenine ratio as a biomarker of bladder cancer

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

Recurrence‐ and progression‐free survival in intermediate‐risk non‐muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: the impact of conditional evaluation and subclassification

Objective

To evaluate the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) found to have pathological positive lymph nodes (pN1s) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) with regard to distant recurrence‐free survival (RFS), according to both main tumour pathological characteristics and number of positive lymph nodes. Biochemical RFS, local RFS, overall survival (OS) and acute and late toxicity were assessed as secondary endpoints.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective cohort of 187 consecutive patients with pN1 PCa were treated with aRT at the IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy. aRT on the tumour bed and pelvis was administered within 6 months of RP. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to the guidelines. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses predicting biochemical RFS, local RFS, distant RFS and OS rates were performed to assess whether the number of pN1s represented an independent prognostic factor. The Youden index was computed to find the optimal threshold for the number of pN1s able to discriminate between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse.

Results

At 5 years, local RFS, distant RFS, biochemical RFS and OS were 68%, 71%, 56% and 94%, respectively. The median follow‐up was 49 months. The number of pN1s was significantly associated with biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS. The best threshold for discriminating between patients with or without biochemical and clinical relapse was five pN1s. In multivariate analyses, the number of pN1s was confirmed to be an independent predictor of biochemical RFS, local RFS and distant RFS, but not of OS. Multivariate analyses also showed an increased risk of biochemical relapse for increasing values of initial prostate‐specific antigen and for patients with tumour vascular invasion. Local and distant RFS were also inversely correlated with significantly reduced risk for International Society of Urological Pathology grade group <3 (group 1 or 2 compared to group 3).

Conclusions

Our data confirmed the encouraging outcomes of patients with pN1 PCa treated with adjuvant treatments and the key role represented by the number of pN1s in predicting biochemical RFS, clinical RFS and distant RFS. Large prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to identify the subgroup of patients with pN1 PCa who would most benefit from aRT.

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