Archive for category: Latest Articles

Robotic Assisted Kidney Transplantation: Update from the ERUS series

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Elevated Pre‐operative C‐reactive Protein Is Associated with Renal Functional Decline and Non‐Cancer Mortality in Surgically Treated Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis from the INternational Marker Consortium for Renal Cancer [INMARC]

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Combination Bacillus Calmette–Guérin and indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase 1 inhibitor therapy of murine orthotopic bladder cancer

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

The meaning of words – closing the gap in understanding between doctors and patients in 21st century consent

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Functional outcomes after pyeloplasty in solitary kidneys: structured analysis with the implication of Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) staging criteria to predict long‐term renal function recoverability

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Effect of low‐energy shock wave therapy on intravesical epirubicin delivery in a rat model of bladder cancer

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Ethnic and socio‐economic disparities in prostate cancer screening: lessons from New Zealand

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

A risk calculator predicting recurrence in lymph node metastatic penile cancer

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Comparison of the Immunotherapy Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (iRECIST) with RECIST for capturing treatment response of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with pembrolizumab

Objectives

To assess the safety and feasibility of early single‐dose mitomycin C (MMC) bladder instillation after robot‐assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RARNU) at a tertiary kidney cancer centre. RARNU with bladder cuff excision and subsequent MMC bladder instillation to reduce recurrence risk is the ‘gold standard’ for high‐risk upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). We adapted a RARNU technique with precise distal ureteric dissection, bladder cuff excision and watertight bladder closure.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing RARNU for UUTUC at our centre performed as a standardised transperitoneal procedure comprising of: bladder cuff excision, two‐layer watertight closure and intraoperative bladder leak test; without re‐docking/re‐positioning of the robotic surgical system. Patient demographics, the timing of MMC instillation, adverse events (surgical and potentially MMC‐related) and length of stay (LOS) were assessed according to the Clavien–Dindo classification.

Results

A total of 69 patients underwent a RARNU with instillation of MMC. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 70 (62–78) years. The median (IQR) day of MMC instillation was 2 (1–3) days and the median (IQR) LOS was 2 (2–4) days, with urethral catheter removal on day of discharge in all cases. Only Grade I Clavien–Dindo complications occurred in seven patients (10%); five had ileus, one a wound infection and one a self‐limiting delirium, all managed conservatively. No adverse events potentially related to MMC instillation were noted within 30 days postoperatively.

Conclusion

The use of intravesical MMC instillation given in the immediate postoperative period appears feasible and safe in patients undergoing RARNU with intraoperative confirmation of a water‐tight closure ensuring early catheter‐free discharge, with no significant adverse events. The potential reduction in intravesical recurrence in patients receiving early MMC needs to be assessed with longitudinal follow‐up studies.

Avoiding disruption of timely surgical management of genitourinary cancers during the early phase of the COVID‐19 pandemic

Objectives

To analyse all mortalities related to surgery for urinary tract calculi in Australia from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2018, and identify common causes, clinical management issues (CMIs), and areas for improvement.

Patients and Methods

All urological‐related deaths reported to the Australian and New Zealand Audit of Surgical Mortality (ANZASM) from 2009 to 2017 were analysed. The Bi‐National Audit of Surgical Mortality (BAS) database was interrogated for any involvement with renal, ureteric or bladder stones and all relevant associated data analysed. Any CMIs documented by the peer reviewers were recorded and compared to those in urology and all of surgery ANZASM data.

Results

Of 1034 total urological deaths, 100 (9.7%) were related to stones. The mean (range) age of patients was 74.4 (21–97) years; 95% of the patients underwent at least one procedure, with 45 (47.4%) of these being elective. Urinary sepsis was responsible for 49.5% of the deaths, with 20% dying of cardiac events. In all, 39% (37/95) of deaths were associated with CMIs, the most common considerations being delays in diagnosis or treatment, perioperative management and inadequate preoperative evaluation. This is a considerably higher percentage than the 26% recorded for the general urology and all surgery national data. Ureterorenoscopy at 54% (12/22) had the highest rate of CMIs.

Conclusion

Death related to stone surgery represents only a small proportion of all urological surgical deaths, but generates more CMIs amongst ANZASM peer assessors. Results could be improved with more rapid diagnosis and treatment. Careful case selection and access to all treatment options are recommended.

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