Tag Archive for: 1138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies

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Article of the Week: Minimum five-year follow-up of 1,138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Ricardo Soares, discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Minimum five-year follow-up of 1,138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies

Ricardo Soares, Antonina Di Benedetto, Zach Dovey, Simon Bott*, Roy G. McGregor† and Christopher G. Eden

 

Department of Urology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, *Department of Urology, Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley, Surrey, UK, and Cornwall Regional Hospital, Montego Bay, Jamaica

 

OBJECTIVES

To investigate the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

In all, 1138 patients underwent LRP during a 163-month period from 2000 to 2008, of which 51.5%, 30.3% and 18.2% were categorised into D’Amico risk groups of low-, intermediate- and high-risk, respectively. All intermediate- and high-risk patients were staged by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and isotope bone scanning, and had a pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), which was extended after April 2008. The median (range) patient age was 62 (40–78) years; body mass index was 26 (19–44) kg/m2; prostate-specific antigen level was 7.0 (1–50) ng/mL and Gleason score was 6 (6–10). Neurovascular bundle was preservation carried out in 55.3% (bilateral 45.5%; unilateral 9.8%) of patients.

RESULTS

The median (range) gland weight was 52 (14–214) g. The median (range) operating time was 177 (78–600) min and PLND was performed in 299 patients (26.3%), of which 54 (18.0%) were extended. The median (range) blood loss was 200 (10–1300) mL, postoperative hospital stay was 3 (2–14) nights and catheterisation time was 14 (1–35) days. The complication rate was 5.2%. The median (range) LN count was 12 (4–26), LN positivity was 0.8% and the median (range) LN involvement was 2 (1–2). There was margin positivity in 13.9% of patients and up-grading in 29.3% and down-grading in 5.3%. While 11.4% of patients had up-staging from T1/2 to T3 and 37.1% had down-staging from T3 to T2. One case (0.09%) was converted to open surgery and six patients were transfused (0.5%). At a mean (range) follow-up of 88.6 (60–120) months, 85.4% of patients were free of biochemical recurrence, 93.8% were continent and 76.6% of previously potent non-diabetic men aged <70 years were potent after bilateral nerve preservation.

CONCLUSIONS

The long-term results obtainable from LRP match or exceed those previously published in large contemporary open and robot-assisted surgical series.

Editorial: The need for standardised reporting of complications

In the context of diversifying practice models, implementation of new technologies such as the Da Vinci surgical robot and rising healthcare costs, there is growing interest in evaluating the quality of surgical work. This extends into health policy, as reimbursement penalties are introduced for ‘inappropriate’ outcomes (e.g. excessive readmissions). Consequently, there is a significant need to provide an accurate assessment of complications and mortality when reporting on surgical outcomes.

Despite the constant use of outcomes data to measure effectiveness in surgery, no current urology guidelines demand the standardised reporting of surgical complications [1]. As randomised controlled trials are uncommon within the surgical setting, and are associated with significant biases [2], there is a distinct need for a uniform reporting system after urological surgeries. Indeed, the lack of such makes it challenging to compare surgical outcomes between techniques, surgeons and institutions, thus hampering the interpretation of study results [3]. The ongoing (and never-ending) debate on the comparative effectiveness of open vs robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RP) highlights the need for standardised methods to assess superiority (or inferiority) of surgical results [4].

In this issue of the BJUI, Soares et al. [5] present a single-surgeon study of 1138 laparoscopic RPs (LRPs) with a standardised approach between the years 2000 and 2008, and their 5-year follow-up. Whereas the functional and/or oncological equivalency of LRP compared with open RP has been reported before [6], perhaps the outstanding contribution of this study is the use of the Martin-Donat criteria to report and analyse surgical results [3, 7]. In 2002, Martin et al. [7] introduced a list of 10 standard criteria for accurate and comprehensive reporting of surgical complications (e.g. methods of data acquisition, duration of follow-up, definition of complications, hospital length of stay).

In Table 6 of their manuscript, Soares et al. [5] display surgical and/or oncological outcomes of a total of 17 studies on LRP (including their own data). This table suggests the obvious: there is no consistency of reporting on outcomes. In the 2007 Donat [3] analysis of surgical complications reporting in the urological literature, only 2% of a total of 109 studies met nine to 10 of the critical Martin criteria. Interestingly, these shortcomings have been addressed in more contemporary years as the number of studies complying with most of the Martin criteria has increased between 1999/2000 and 2009/2010 [1]. Yet, despite the increasing use of classification systems for outcomes of surgery and standardised reporting of complications (e.g. Clavien-Dindo classification), they are not routinely applied [1, 8].

In an era where the adoption of a certain surgical approach or technique needs to be carefully weighted against a demand for greater value and decreased costs, a simple case series on positive outcomes is simply not sufficient [9]; at the very least, guideline-compliant assessment of outcomes should be the standard of care.

 

Marianne Schmid*, Christian P. Meyer*† and Quoc-Dien Trinh*

 

*Division of Urologic Surgery and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA and† Department of Urology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

 

References

1 Mitropoulos D, Artibani W, Graefen M, Remzi M, Roupret M, Truss MReporting and grading of complications after urologic surgical procedures: an ad hoc EAU guidelines panel assessment and recommendations. Eur Urol 2012; 61: 3419

 

 

 

4 Schmid M, Gandaglia G, Trinh QD. The controversy that will not go away. Eur Urol 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1016/ j.eururo.2014.02.052

 

5 Soares R, Di Benedetto A, Dovey Z, Bott S, McGregor R, Eden CMinimum 5-year follow-up of 1138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. BJU Int 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1111/ bju.12887

 

6 Hruza M, Bermejo JL, Flinspach B et al. Long-term oncological outcomes after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 2013; 111:  27180

 

7 Martin RC 2nd, Brennan MF, Jaques DP. Quality of complication reporting in the surgical literature. Ann Surg 2002; 235: 80313

 

 

9 Novara G, Ficarra V, DElia C, Secco S, Cavalleri S, Artibani W. Trifecta outcomes after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 2011; 107: 1004

 

Video: 1,138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies – Minimum five-year follow-up

Minimum five-year follow-up of 1,138 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomies

Ricardo Soares, Antonina Di Benedetto, Zach Dovey, Simon Bott*, Roy G. McGregor† and Christopher G. Eden

 

Department of Urology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, *Department of Urology, Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley, Surrey, UK, and Cornwall Regional Hospital, Montego Bay, Jamaica

 

OBJECTIVES

To investigate the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

In all, 1138 patients underwent LRP during a 163-month period from 2000 to 2008, of which 51.5%, 30.3% and 18.2% were categorised into D’Amico risk groups of low-, intermediate- and high-risk, respectively. All intermediate- and high-risk patients were staged by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and isotope bone scanning, and had a pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), which was extended after April 2008. The median (range) patient age was 62 (40–78) years; body mass index was 26 (19–44) kg/m2; prostate-specific antigen level was 7.0 (1–50) ng/mL and Gleason score was 6 (6–10). Neurovascular bundle was preservation carried out in 55.3% (bilateral 45.5%; unilateral 9.8%) of patients.

RESULTS

The median (range) gland weight was 52 (14–214) g. The median (range) operating time was 177 (78–600) min and PLND was performed in 299 patients (26.3%), of which 54 (18.0%) were extended. The median (range) blood loss was 200 (10–1300) mL, postoperative hospital stay was 3 (2–14) nights and catheterisation time was 14 (1–35) days. The complication rate was 5.2%. The median (range) LN count was 12 (4–26), LN positivity was 0.8% and the median (range) LN involvement was 2 (1–2). There was margin positivity in 13.9% of patients and up-grading in 29.3% and down-grading in 5.3%. While 11.4% of patients had up-staging from T1/2 to T3 and 37.1% had down-staging from T3 to T2. One case (0.09%) was converted to open surgery and six patients were transfused (0.5%). At a mean (range) follow-up of 88.6 (60–120) months, 85.4% of patients were free of biochemical recurrence, 93.8% were continent and 76.6% of previously potent non-diabetic men aged <70 years were potent after bilateral nerve preservation.

CONCLUSIONS

The long-term results obtainable from LRP match or exceed those previously published in large contemporary open and robot-assisted surgical series.

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