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Editorial: Regaining continence after radical prostatectomy: RARP vs. ORP

Functional outcomes represent relevant criteria to evaluate the success of radical prostatectomy (RP) in the treatment of localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. Indeed, while the primary goal of RP remains the complete extirpation of the primary tumour, patients’ satisfaction can be negatively affected by urinary incontinence and/or erectile dysfunction after RP.

In this issue of BJUI, Geraerts et al. [1] evaluated urinary continence recovery and voiding symptoms in a well-conducted, single-centre, prospective non-randomised study comparing two contemporary series of patients who underwent either open retropubic RP (RRP) or robot-assisted RP (RARP) for clinically localised or locally advanced prostate cancer. Patients were assigned to each group according to their or their surgeon’s preference. High-risk prostate cancers were preferably treated with an open access to offer a more accurate extended lymphadenectomy. The study showed that the urinary continence recovery rate was significantly shorter in the RARP group than in the RRP group (16 vs 46 days; P = 0.008). Interestingly, the RA approach remained an independent predictor of time to urinary continence recovery on multivariable Cox regression analysis (P = 0.03; hazard ratio [HR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.03–2.26). Therefore, this study confirmed previously published results. In 2003, Tewari et al. [2] reported a shorter time to recovery of urinary continence in patients who underwent RARP (44 days) than those who received RRP (160 days). In 2008, Kim et al. [3] reported a median time to continence in RARP patients of 1.6 months, significantly lower than the 4.3 months in the RRP patients. Interestingly, Geraerts et al. [1] identified other independent predictors of time to continence, such as patient’s age >65 years (P = 0.02; HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45–0.96) and the preoperative continence status (P = 0.004; HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.18–2.43). In all, 28% of patients who received RRP and 34% of those who underwent RARP were preoperatively defined as incontinent using a symptom-specific questionnaire [1]. These patients classifiable as ‘Cx’ according to the Survival, Continence and Potency (SCP) classification [4] represent a confounding population in the Geraerts et al. study who should be evaluated separately.

An interesting question is whether the reported difference in time to continence in favour of RARP is also significant from the clinical perspective. Urinary continence in patients who underwent RARP recovered 1 month early than those treated with traditional RRP. The King’s Health questionnaire seems to confirm a positive effect of this outcome on the patient’s quality of life (QoL). Indeed, there were better results in the RARP compared with RRP group at 1 and 3 months after RP. Moreover, at 12 months after RP, patients who underwent RRP were more physically limited (P = 0.01) and took more precautions to avoid urine loss (P = 0.01) than those who received a RARP [1]. These data seem to be in conflict with the reported overlapping 12-month urinary continence rates (96% in RRP and 97% in RARP group). Moreover, looking at the 12-month urinary continence rate, the Geraerts et al. study does not confirm the results of a recent cumulative analysis of available comparative studies showing a better 12-month urinary continence rate after RARP compared with RRP (odds ratio 1.53; P = 0.03) [1].

Interestingly, the 12-month urinary continence rate reported after RRP by Geraerts et al. is significantly higher (96%) than the values reported in the comparative studies included in the meta-analysis (88.7%) and in the most important and recent RRP non-comparative series (60–93%) [5]. This aspect appears to confirm the important role of surgeon experience. Indeed, in this Belgium series most of the open procedures were performed by an expert surgeon with experience of >3000 RRPs, and thus able to reach excellent functional outcomes for urinary continence recovery. In favour of robotic surgeons, we could consider that they were able to reach overlapping results after <200 cases.

In conclusion, the study published by Geraerts et al. [1] showed that modern RP in expert hands is able to achieve excellent results for urinary continence recovery regardless of the approach. However, pure and RA laparoscopy has pushed open surgeons to improve technical and postoperative aspects to achieve comparable outcomes. RARP can offer some advantages over traditional RRP, above all for the time to reach urinary continence. This advantage seems to have generated a better QoL profile in patients who underwent RARP at 12 months after RP.

However, the choice between the two techniques must be taken according to all the most relevant parameters including perioperative, functional (continence and potency) and oncological outcomes. Therefore, we strongly support the publication of clinical series or comparative studies reporting results according to the ‘trifecta’, ‘pentafecta’ or SCP systems [6].

Vincenzo Ficarra°, Alessandro Iannettiand Alexandre Mottrie
OLV Vattikuti Robotic Surgery Institute, Aalst, Belgium, °Department of Experimental and Clinical Medical Sciences – Urology Unit – School of Medicine, University of Udine, 
and *Department of Surgical, Oncologic and Gastrointestinal Sciences, Padua, Italy

References

  1. Geraerts I, Van Poppel H, Devoogdt N, Van Cleynenbreugel B, Joniau S, Van Kampen M. Prospective evaluation of urinary incontinence, voiding symptoms and quality of life after open and robot-assisted radical prostatectomyBJU Int 2013; 112:936–943
  2. Tewari A, Srivasatava A, Menon M, Members of the VIP Team. A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institutionBJU Int 2003; 92: 205–210
  3. Kim SC, Song C, Kim W et al. Factors determining functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy: robot-assisted versus retropubicEur Urol 2011; 60: 413–419
  4. Ficarra V, Sooriakumaran P, Novara G et al. Systematic review of methods for reporting combined outcomes after radical prostatectomy and proposal of a novel system: the survival, continence, and potency (SCP) classificationEur Urol 2012; 61:541–548
  5. Ficarra V, Novara G, Rosen RC et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting urinary continence recovery after robot-assisted radical prostatectomyEur Urol 2012; 62: 405–417
  6. Ficarra V, Borghesi M, Suardi N et al. Long-term evaluation of survival, continence and potency (SCP) outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)BJU Int 2013; 112: 338–345

Video: Functional outcomes after ORP and RARP

Prospective evaluation of urinary incontinence, voiding symptoms and quality of life after open and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

Inge Geraerts*, Hendrik Van Poppel, Nele Devoogdt*, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Steven Joniau and Marijke Van Kampen*

Departments of *Rehabilitation Science, Urology and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

OBJECTIVE

• To compare functional outcomes, i.e. urinary incontinence (UI), voiding symptoms and quality of life, after open (ORP) and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• Between September 2009 and July 2011, 180 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy; of these, 116 underwent ORP and 64 underwent RARP. We prospectively assessed the functional outcomes of each group during the first year of follow-up.

• We measured UI on the 3 days before surgery (24-h pad test) and daily after surgery until total continence, defined as 3 consecutive days of 0 g urine leak, was achieved. Additionally, all patients were assessed before surgery and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ).

• All patients received pelvic floor muscle training until continence was achieved.

• Kaplan–Meier analyses and Cox regression with correction for covariates were used to compare time to continence. A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to assess IPSS and KHQ.

RESULTS

• Patients in the RARP group had a significantly lower D’Amico risk group allocation and underwent more nerve-sparing surgery. Other characteristics were similar.

• Patients in the RARP group regained continence sooner than those in the ORP group (P = 0.007). In the RARP group, the median time to continence (16 vs 46 days, P = 0.026) was significantly shorter and the median amount of first day UI (44 vs 186 g, P < 0.01) was significantly smaller than in the ORP group. After correction for all covariates, the difference remained significant (P = 0.036, hazard ratio [HR] 1.522 (1.027–2.255). In addition, younger men, men with positive surgical margins and men without preoperative incontinence achieved continence sooner.

• A comparison of time to continence between groups with a sufficient number of patients (intermediate risk and/or bilateral nerve-sparing) still showed a faster return of continence after RARP, but the effect decreased in size and was nonsignificant (HR>1.2, P> 0.05).

• Only six patients (two in the RARP and four in the ORP group) still had UI after 1 year.• Patients in the RARP group had significantly better IPSS scores at 1 (P = 0.013) and 3 (P = 0.038) months, and scored better in almost all KHQ aspects.

CONCLUSION

• In this prospective trial, patients treated with RARP tended to regain urinary continence sooner than patients treated with ORP, but in subgroup analyses statistical significance disappeared and effect size decreased dramatically, indicating that the results must be interpreted with caution.

Article of the week: Discovery provides new means for regenerative bladder reconstruction

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video of Dr Verdi discussing his paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Endometrial stem cell differentiation into smooth muscle cell: a novel approach for bladder tissue engineering in women

Alireza Shoae-Hassani*, Shiva Sharif, Alexander M. Seifalian, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Sassan Rezaie§ and Javad Verdi

Departments of Applied Cell Sciences and §Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, and *Department of Stem cell and Tissue Engineering, Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine (RCSTiM), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, University College London, UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, London, UK, and Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran

OBJECTIVE

• To investigate manufacturing smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for regenerative bladder reconstruction from differentiation of endometrial stem cells (EnSCs), as the recent discovery of EnSCs from the lining of women’s uteri, opens up the possibility of using these cells for tissue engineering applications, such as building up natural tissue to repair prolapsed pelvic floors as well as building urinary bladder wall.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

• Human EnSCs that were positive for cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), CD105 and CD90 were isolated and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle/F12 medium supplemented with myogenic growth factors.

• The myogenic factors included: transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

• Differentiated SMCs on bioabsorbable polyethylene-glycol and collagen hydrogels were checked for SMC markers by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot (WB) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analyses.

RESULTS

• Histology confirmed the growth of SMCs in the hydrogel matrices.

• The myogenic growth factors decreased the proliferation rate of EnSCs, but they differentiated the human EnSCs into SMCs more efficiently on hydrogel matrices and expressed specific SMC markers including α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, vinculin and calponin in RT-PCR, WB and ICC experiments.

• The survival rate of cultures on the hydrogel-coated matrices was significantly higher than uncoated cultures.

CONCLUSIONS

• Human EnSCs were successfully differentiated into SMCs, using hydrogels as scaffold.

• EnSCs may be used for autologous bladder wall regeneration without any immunological complications in women.

• Currently work is in progress using bioabsorbable nanocomposite materials as EnSC scaffolds for developing urinary bladder wall tissue.

 

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Video: Endometrial stem cells: new hope for pelvic floor prolapsed?

Endometrial stem cell differentiation into smooth muscle cell: a novel approach for bladder tissue engineering in women

Alireza Shoae-Hassani*, Shiva Sharif, Alexander M. Seifalian, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Sassan Rezaie§ and Javad Verdi

Departments of Applied Cell Sciences and §Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, and *Department of Stem cell and Tissue Engineering, Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine (RCSTiM), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, University College London, UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, London, UK, and Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran

OBJECTIVE

• To investigate manufacturing smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for regenerative bladder reconstruction from differentiation of endometrial stem cells (EnSCs), as the recent discovery of EnSCs from the lining of women’s uteri, opens up the possibility of using these cells for tissue engineering applications, such as building up natural tissue to repair prolapsed pelvic floors as well as building urinary bladder wall.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

• Human EnSCs that were positive for cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), CD105 and CD90 were isolated and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle/F12 medium supplemented with myogenic growth factors.

• The myogenic factors included: transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

• Differentiated SMCs on bioabsorbable polyethylene-glycol and collagen hydrogels were checked for SMC markers by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot (WB) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analyses.

RESULTS

• Histology confirmed the growth of SMCs in the hydrogel matrices.

• The myogenic growth factors decreased the proliferation rate of EnSCs, but they differentiated the human EnSCs into SMCs more efficiently on hydrogel matrices and expressed specific SMC markers including α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, vinculin and calponin in RT-PCR, WB and ICC experiments.

• The survival rate of cultures on the hydrogel-coated matrices was significantly higher than uncoated cultures.

CONCLUSIONS

• Human EnSCs were successfully differentiated into SMCs, using hydrogels as scaffold.

• EnSCs may be used for autologous bladder wall regeneration without any immunological complications in women.

• Currently work is in progress using bioabsorbable nanocomposite materials as EnSC scaffolds for developing urinary bladder wall tissue.

Article of the week: The AUA speaks: prostate cancer detection guideline

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

American Urological Association (AUA) Guideline on prostate cancer detection: process and rationale

H. Ballentine Carter

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA

ABSTRACT

To review the process and rationale for the American Urological Association (AUA) guideline on prostate cancer detection. The AUA guideline on detection of prostate cancer involved a systematic literature review of >300 studies that evaluated outcomes important to patients (prostate cancer, incidence/mortality, health-related quality of life, diagnostic accuracy and harms of testing). A multidisciplinary panel interpreted the evidence and formulated statements to assist the urologist and the asymptomatic average-risk man in decision-making about prostate cancer detection. Other than prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, there was no evidence to address the outcomes of interest to patients. The strongest evidence that benefits may outweigh harms was in men aged 55–69 years undergoing PSA-based screening. This led the panel to recommend shared decision-making for these men at average risk, but recommend against routine screening for other age groups at average risk. Further, to reduce the harms associated with screening (false positive tests, over diagnosis, over treatment), the panel recommended against annual screening for those who choose to be screened. A panel under the auspices of the AUA recommended shared decision-making for the average risk asymptomatic man aged 55–69 years considering PSA-based screening for prostate cancer detection.

 

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Article of the week: Both men and women with OAB find better relief with fesoterodine

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video by Dr. Ginsberg and colleagues.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Efficacy of fesoterodine compared with extended-release tolterodine in men and women with overactive bladder

David Ginsberg, Tim Schneider*, Con Kelleher, Philip Van Kerrebroeck, Steven Swift§, Dana Creanga and Diane L. Martire**

Department of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, §Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, Consultant to Pfizer Inc, **Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA, *Praxisklinik Urologie Rhein/Ruhr, Mülheim, Germany, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK, and Department of Urology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands

OBJECTIVE

• To assess the efficacy of fesoterodine 8 mg vs extended-release (ER) tolterodine 4 mg for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in terms of patient-reported outcomes in women and in men.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

•  Pooled data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy studies were analysed.

• Participants eligible for the studies were ≥18 years old, had self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥3 months in 3-day baseline diaries and had ≥8 micturitions and ≥1 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episode per 24 h.

• Individuals were randomized to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week then 8 mg for 11 weeks), ER tolterodine (4 mg), or placebo.

• Changes from baseline in 3-day bladder diary variables and scores from the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), Urgency Perception Scale (UPS), and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), were assessed, as was the ‘diary-dry’ rate (the proportion of subjects with >0 UUI episodes according to baseline diary and no UUI episodes according to post-baseline diary).

• The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes.

RESULTS

• At week 12, women showed significantly greater improvement with fesoterodine 8 mg (n = 1374) than with ER tolterodine 4 mg (n= 1382) and placebo (n = 679) in UUI episodes (primary endpoint), micturition frequency, urgency episodes, and all other diary endpoints (except nocturnal micturitions versus ER tolterodine), and also in scores on the PPBC, UPS, and all OAB-q scales and domains (all P < 0.005).

• Diary-dry rates in women were significantly greater with fesoterodine (63%) than with tolterodine (57%; P = 0.002) or placebo (48%; P < 0.0001).

• In men, there were no significant differences in improvement in UUI episodes between any treatment groups at week 12. Improvements in men were significantly greater with fesoterodine 8 mg (n = 265) than with ER tolterodine (n = 275) for severe urgency and the OAB-q Symptom Bother domain and were also significantly greater with fesoterodine than with placebo (n = 133) for micturition frequency, urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes, PPBC responses and scores on all OAB-q scales and domains at week 12 (all P < 0.04).

• The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events in both genders were dry mouth (women: fesoterodine, 29%; ER tolterodine, 15%; placebo, 6%; men: fesoterodine, 21%; ER tolterodine, 13%; placebo, 5%) and constipation (women: fesoterodine, 5%; ER tolterodine, 4%; placebo, 2%; men: fesoterodine, 5%; ER tolterodine, 3%; placebo, 1%).

• Urinary retention rates were low in women (fesoterodine, <1%; ER tolterodine, <1%; placebo, 0%) and men (fesoterodine, 2%; ER tolterodine <1%; placebo, 2%).

CONCLUSION

• This analysis supports the superiority of fesoterodine 8 mg over ER tolterodine 4 mg on diary endpoints, including UUI, symptom bother and health-related quality of life in women.

• In men, fesoterodine 8 mg was superior to ER tolterodine 4 mg for improving severe urgency and symptom bother.

 

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Article of the week: Plasma vaporization: the new standard for PCNL tract creation?

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video procedure by Dr Chiang and colleagues showing tract creation using plasma vaporization.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

 

Randomized and prospective trial comparing tract creation using plasma vaporization with balloon dilatation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Po Hui Chiang and Hsin Hao Su

Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma vaporization for tract creation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• In this randomized prospective trial we enrolled 65 patients and assigned each to one of two groups: 33 patients were randomly scheduled to undergo plasma vaporization and 32 were scheduled to undergo balloon dilatation for tract creation.

• A bipolar resectoscope mounted with a plasma vaporization button electrode or a traditional balloon dilator were used to create the nephrostomy tract.

RESULTS

• The mean blood loss, mean length of hospital stay and mean operating time, stone-free rates and postoperative complications in the two groups were compared using the t-test or chi-squared test (Fisher’s exact test).

• The plasma vaporization group had a significantly lower mean (SD) decrease in haematocrit level (3.5 [2.8]% vs 6.6 [3.3]%; P = 0.02) and a shorter mean (SD) hospital stay (2.6 [1.2] days vs 5.3 [3.4] days; P = 0.0).

• There were no significant differences in the operating time, stone-free rate or cases of postoperative fever between the two groups.

CONCLUSION

• The plasma vaporization technique is safe, leads to less blood loss than the other techniques, and is a simple solution for creating the nephrostomy tract for PCNL.

 

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Article of the week: Preventing biofilm in wireless capsule bladder endoscopy

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video of in-vivo trials in sheep .

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Novel anti-biofilm mechanism for wireless capsule endoscopy in the urinary tract: preliminary study in a sheep model

Amos Neheman*, Claude Schulman and Ofer Yossepowitch†§

*Urology Department, Meir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, Department of Urology, University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, and §Institute of Urology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson, Petah Tikva, Israel

OBJECTIVE

• To develop and test the safety and feasibility of a novel anti-biofilm mechanism configured for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in a sheep bladder model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

• A WCE mechanism, designed for long-term bladder monitoring, was developed and introduced into a sheep bladder for 5 months.

• The transparency of the surface was assessed by evaluating a resolution target placed inside the capsule at serial intervals using cystoscopy under general anaesthesia.

• Animal behaviour, voiding patterns and urine cultures were monitored throughout the study.

• At study termination, the capsule was extracted and assessed using scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS

• The resolution target was visualized clearly at all investigation points.

• No notable adverse effects were noted during the entire follow-up period and no urinary tract infection occurred.

• Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the efficacy of the technology to prevent biofilm formation and surface encrustation.

CONCLUSIONS

• We report a novel technology that effectively prevents biofilm formation on the outer surface of foreign objects in the urinary tract.

• Further studies are under way to test the applicability of this technology in bladder WCE to enable high-quality wireless image transmission.

 

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Article of the week: Prognostic Gleason grade group predicts survival

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

Phillip M. Pierorazio*, Patrick C. Walsh*, Alan W. Partin* and Jonathan I. Epstein*†‡

Departments of *Urology, Pathology and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions and The James Brady Buchannan Urological Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA

OBJECTIVE

• To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men.

• Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival.

RESULTS

• Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP.

• With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology.

CONCLUSIONS

• The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour.

• We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade group (IV); and Gleason score 9–10 (prognostic grade group (V).

 

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Article of the week: The survey says: surgeon preferences during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

The European Association of Urology Robotic Urology Section (ERUS) survey of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)

Vincenzo Ficarra1, Peter N. Wiklund2, Charles Henry Rochat3, Prokar Dasgupta4, Benjamin J. Challacombe4, Prasanna Sooriakumaran5, Stefan Siemer6, Nazareno Suardi7, Giacomo Novara1 and Alexandre Mottrie8

1Oncological and Surgical Sciences, Urology Clinic, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 2Urology Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Multidisciplinary Centre of Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery, Générale-Beaulieu Clinic, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Urology, Guy’s Hospital, London, UK; 5Department of Urology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK; 6Department of Urology, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Germany; 7Department of Urology, Vita-Salute University San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; and 8Department of Urology O.L.V. Clinic Aalst, Aalst, Belgium; EAU Robotic Urologic Section (ERUS) Scientific Working Group

OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate surgeons adherence to current clinical practice, with the available evidence, for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and offer a baseline assessment to measure the impact of the Pasadena recommendations. Recently, the European Association of Urology Robotic Urology Section (ERUS) supported the Pasadena Consensus Conference on best practices in RARP.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

• This survey was performed in January 2012. A specific questionnaire was sent, by e-mail, to 145 robotic surgeons who were included in the mailing-list of ERUS members and working in different urological institutions.

• Participating surgeons were invited to answer a multiple-choice questionnaire including 24-items evaluating the main RARP surgical steps.

RESULTS

• In all, 116 (79.4%) invited surgeons answered the questionnaire and accepted to participate to the ERUS survey.

• In all, 47 (40.5%) surgeons performed >100 RARPs; 41 (35.3%) between 50 and 100, and 28 (24.1%) <50 yearly.

• The transperitoneal, antegrade technique was the preferred approach.

• Minimising bladder neck dissection and the use of athermal dissection of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) were also popular.

• There was more heterogeneity in the use of energy for seminal vesicle dissection, the preservation of the tips of the seminal vesicle and the choice between intra- and interfascial planes during the antero-lateral dissection of the NVBs. There was also large variability in the posterior and/or anterior reconstruction steps.

CONCLUSIONS

• The present study is the first international survey evaluating surgeon preferences during RARP.

• Considering that the results were collected before the publication of the Pasadena recommendations, the data might be considered an important baseline evaluation to test the dissemination and effects of the Pasadena recommendations in subsequent years.

 

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