Tag Archive for: #BJUI

Posts

Article of the week: Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating induction chemoradiotherapy and consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for MIBC

Every week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community, a visual abstract by one of our resident artists and a video produced by the authors. These are intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating induction chemoradiotherapy and consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: oncological and functional outcomes of 107 patients

 

Toshiki Kijima*, Hajime Tanaka*, Fumitaka Koga, Hitoshi Masuda, Soichiro Yoshida*, Minato Yokoyama*, Junichiro Ishioka*, Yoh Matsuoka*, Kazutaka Saito*, Kazunori Kihara* and Yasuhisa Fujii*

 

*Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Department of Urology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, andDepartment of Urology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan

 

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes associated with selective tetramodal bladder‐sparing therapy, comprising maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and consolidative partial cystectomy (PC) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).

Materials and Methods

In the present study, 154 patients with non‐metastatic muscle‐invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), prospectively enrolled in the tetramodal bladder‐preservation protocol, were analysed. After TURBT and induction CRT, patients showing complete remission were offered consolidative PC with PLND for the achievement of bladder preservation. Pathological response to induction CRT was evaluated using PC specimens. Oncological and functional outcomes after bladder preservation were evaluated using the following endpoints: MIBC‐recurrence‐free survival (RFS); cancer‐specific survival (CSS); overall survival (OS), and cross‐sectional assessments of preserved bladder function and quality of life (QoL) including uroflowmetry, bladder diary, International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score and the 36‐item Short‐Form Health Survey (SF‐36) score.

Results

The median follow‐up period was 48 months. Complete MIBC remission was achieved in 121 patients (79%) after CRT, and 107 patients (69%) completed the tetramodal bladder‐preservation protocol comprising consolidative PC with PLND. Pathological examination in these 107 patients revealed residual invasive cancer (≥pT1) that was surgically removed in 11 patients (10%) and lymph node metastases in two patients (2%). The 5‐year MIBC‐RFS, CSS and OS rates in the 107 patients who completed the protocol were 97%, 93% and 91%, respectively. As for preserved bladder function, the median maximum voided volume, post‐void residual urine volume, and nighttime frequency were 350 mL, 25 mL, and two voids, respectively. In the SF‐36, patients had favourable scores, equivalent to the age‐matched references in all the QoL scales.

Conclusion

Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating consolidative PC with PLND, yielded favourable oncological and functional outcomes in patients with MIBC. Consolidative PC may have contributed to the low rate of MIBC recurrence in patients treated according to this protocol.

Editorial: A new horizon for bladder preservation in muscle‐invasive bladder cancer

We are witnessing a shift toward treatment de‐escalation in muscle‐invasive bladder cancer. Patients diagnosed with muscle‐invasive bladder cancer have traditionally faced two treatment options: (1) radical cystectomy with urinary diversion or (2) chemoradiation, both of which can impact quality of life and subsequent morbidity while variably influencing recurrence rates. Recent research has turned toward treatment de‐escalation in an attempt to preserve the bladder while maintaining survival rates. In this issue of BJUI, Kijima et al. [1] propose a tetramodal treatment regimen which combines chemoradiation with partial cystectomy, in an attempt to avoid radical cystectomy without compromising recurrence and survival. Similar ongoing clinical trials are beginning to explore the role of treatment de‐escalation by potentially avoiding cystectomy and/or radiation altogether. Dr Daniel Geynisman is leading a phase II trial at Fox Chase Medical Centre to investigate the role of single‐modality chemotherapy [2]. In that study, therapy is individualized by applying a risk‐adapted approach to identify genetic mutations in cancer cells to predict whether chemotherapy will be effective in eliminating all cancer and preventing future recurrence and metastasis. A related study led by Dr Alexander Kutikov is assessing the reliability of cystoscopic evaluation in predicting pT0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder at the time of radical cystectomy [3]. By identifying urine biomarkers, investigators could potentially identify those patients who will respond completely to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, thus obviating the need for subsequent cystectomy.

While these studies have not yet provided definitive evidence to forgo definitive therapy (whether it be chemoradiotherapy or radical cystectomy), in this issue of BJUI, Kijima et al. [1] propose similar de‐escalation efforts to promote bladder preservation in a carefully selected population, by preserving quality of life with chemoradiation while addressing the potential increased risk of recurrence with partial cystectomy. The authors report the oncological and functional outcomes of a series of patients who underwent a new tetramodal bladder preservation treatment combination for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer [1]. After patients underwent maximal transurethral bladder tumour resection, induction chemoradiotherapy and consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, only 4% of patients experienced recurrence of muscle‐invasive bladder cancer over a median follow‐up of 2 years, with an overall cancer recurrence rate of 18% and a 5‐year cancer‐specific survival of 93%.

When comparing these findings with the bladder cancer recurrence rates after partial cystectomy in the setting of muscle‐invasive disease (~40%) [4] and trimodal bladder preservation therapy (11–19%) [5], the findings presented in this paper are remarkable. Although the lower recurrence rate observed in this patient series may be influenced by a shorter follow‐up time than other studies looking at similar outcomes in patients treated for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer, the results of this paper demonstrate a promising frontier in bladder cancer treatment, combining the benefits of trimodal therapy with the extirpative intent of surgery while preserving the bladder. The long‐term (>5 year) cancer‐specific outcomes of these patients, however, remain unknown and are important to examine in order to contribute to our understanding of the true efficacy of this bladder cancer management strategy.

Given that treatment de‐escalation and bladder preservation share the goal of reduced morbidity and improved quality of life, functional outcomes after tetramodal therapy remain unclear yet critical. Differences in functional outcomes between cystectomy and bladder preservation also remain unclear, as randomized trials in this space are challenging to accrue, a lesson learned with the SPARE trial [67]. Certainly, radiation and partial cystectomy are interventions that can decrease bladder capacity and result in irritative LUTS. The extent to which tetramodal therapy impacts these functional outcomes will be important to address moving forward. Despite the absence of a pre‐treatment baseline symptom profile, the overall favourable urinary quality‐of‐life score and reasonable bladder capacity after treatment completion are encouraging and suggest adequate patient tolerability.

As we usher in a new era of personalized medicine in muscle‐invasive bladder cancer, tetramodal bladder preservation treatment may have a role in bladder preservation by decreasing recurrence while maintaining quality of life. We look forward to long‐term data regarding oncological and functional outcomes to determine if this treatment strategy offers a significant benefit when compared with the ‘gold standard’ therapies for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer.

by Pauline Filippou and Angela B Smith

References

  1. Kijima TTanaka HKoga F et al. Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating induction chemoradiotherapy and consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: oncological and functional outcomes of 107 patients. BJU Int 2019124242– 50
  2. Phase II Trial of Risk Enabled Therapy after Initiating Neoajduvant Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer (RETAIN BLADDER)2018. Available at: https://www.carislifesciences.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ASCO-GU-A-Phase-II-Trial-of-Risk-Enabled-Therapy-After-Initiating-Neoadjuvant-Chemotherapy-for-Bladder-Cancer-RETAIN-BLADDER.pdf. Accessed April 2019
  3. Cystoscopic Evaluation Predicting pT0 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder2019. Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02968732. Accessed April 2019
  4. Fahmy NAprikian ATanguay S et al. Practice patterns and recurrence after partial cystectomy for bladder cancer. World J Urol 201028419– 23
  5. Ploussard GDaneshmand SEfstathiou JA et al. Critical analysis of bladder sparing with trimodal therapy in muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review. Eur Urol 201466120– 37
  6. Huddart RABirtle AMaynard L et al. Clinical and patient‐reported outcomes of SPARE ‐ a randomised feasibility study of selective bladder preservation versus radical cystectomy. BJU Int2017120639– 50
  7. Huddart RAHall ELewis RBirtle AGroup STMLife and death of spare (selective bladder preservation against radical excision): reflections on why the spare trial closed. BJU Int 2010106:753– 5

 

Video: Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy for MIBC

Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating induction chemoradiotherapy and consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: oncological and functional outcomes of 107 patients

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes associated with selective tetramodal bladder‐sparing therapy, comprising maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and consolidative partial cystectomy (PC) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).

Materials and Methods

In the present study, 154 patients with non‐metastatic muscle‐invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), prospectively enrolled in the tetramodal bladder‐preservation protocol, were analysed. After TURBT and induction CRT, patients showing complete remission were offered consolidative PC with PLND for the achievement of bladder preservation. Pathological response to induction CRT was evaluated using PC specimens. Oncological and functional outcomes after bladder preservation were evaluated using the following endpoints: MIBC‐recurrence‐free survival (RFS); cancer‐specific survival (CSS); overall survival (OS), and cross‐sectional assessments of preserved bladder function and quality of life (QoL) including uroflowmetry, bladder diary, International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score and the 36‐item Short‐Form Health Survey (SF‐36) score.

Results

The median follow‐up period was 48 months. Complete MIBC remission was achieved in 121 patients (79%) after CRT, and 107 patients (69%) completed the tetramodal bladder‐preservation protocol comprising consolidative PC with PLND. Pathological examination in these 107 patients revealed residual invasive cancer (≥pT1) that was surgically removed in 11 patients (10%) and lymph node metastases in two patients (2%). The 5‐year MIBC‐RFS, CSS and OS rates in the 107 patients who completed the protocol were 97%, 93% and 91%, respectively. As for preserved bladder function, the median maximum voided volume, post‐void residual urine volume, and nighttime frequency were 350 mL, 25 mL, and two voids, respectively. In the SF‐36, patients had favourable scores, equivalent to the age‐matched references in all the QoL scales.

Conclusion

Selective tetramodal bladder‐preservation therapy, incorporating consolidative PC with PLND, yielded favourable oncological and functional outcomes in patients with MIBC. Consolidative PC may have contributed to the low rate of MIBC recurrence in patients treated according to this protocol.

Article of the month: Resident burnout in USA and European urology residents: an international concern

Every month, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an editorial  and a visual abstract written by members of the urological community, and a video prepared by the authors. These are intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. 

If you only have time to read one article this month, it should be this one.

Resident burnout in USA and European urology residents: an international concern

Daniel Marchalik*, Charlotte C. Goldman, Filipe F. L. Carvalho*, Michele Talso§, John H. Lynch*, Francesco Esperto, Benjamin Pradere**, Jeroen Van Besien†† and Ross E. Krasnow‡‡

 

*Department of Urology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, MedStar Health, Office of Physician Well-being, Columbia, MD,Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington DC, USA, §Urology DepartmentMonza Brianza, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Vimercate Hospital, Vimercate, Department of Urology, Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italy, **Academic Department of Urology, CHRU Tours, François Rabelais University, Tours, France,††Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, and ‡‡Department ofUrology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington DC, USA

 

Abstract

Objective

To describe the prevalence and predictors of burnout in USA and European urology residents, as although the rate of burnout in urologists is high and associated with severe negative sequelae, the extent and predictors of burnout in urology trainees remains poorly understood.

Subjects and methods

An anonymous 32‐question survey of urology trainees across the USA and four European countries, analysing personal, programme, and institutional factors, was conducted. Burnout was assessed using the validated abridged Maslach Burnout Inventory. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models assessed drivers of burnout in the two cohorts.

Fig.1. The predicted probability of burnout in residents stratified by non‐medical reading.

Results

Overall, 40% of participants met the criteria for burnout as follows: Portugal (68%), Italy (49%), USA (38%), Belgium (36%), and France (26%). Response rates were: USA, 20.9%; Italy, 45.2%; Portugal, 30.5%; France, 12.5%; and Belgium, 9.4%. Burnout was not associated with gender or level of training. In both cohorts, work–life balance (WLB) dissatisfaction was associated with increased burnout (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, P < 0.001), whilst non‐medical reading (OR 0.6, P = 0.001) and structured mentorship (OR 0.4, P = 0.002) were associated with decreased burnout risk. Lack of access to mental health services was associated with burnout in the USA only (OR 3.5, P = 0.006), whilst more weekends on‐call was associated with burnout in Europe only (OR 8.3, P = 0.033). In both cohorts, burned out residents were more likely to not choose a career in urology again (USA 54% vs 19%, P < 0.001; Europe 43% vs 25%, P = 0.047).

Conclusion

In this study of USA and European urology residents, we found high rates of burnout on both continents. Despite regional differences in the predictors of burnout, awareness of the unique institutional drivers may help inform directions of future interventions.

Editorial: The pursuit of purpose: reframing strategies to prevent physician burnout

If there is one virtue that drives surgery residents to toil away in sterile, brightly lit operating rooms for extended hours for the best years of their life, it is the pursuit of purpose. However, these extended hours can also lead to what the WHO has now officially recognized as a medical condition: burnout. In a study in this issue of BJUI, Marchalik et al. [1] use qualitative analysis to elaborate on the prevalence and predictors of burnout among urology residents in the USA and in four European countries. Using an anonymous survey, the authors report a high prevalence of burnout in urology residents in both cohorts, with the European residents (44%) experiencing a higher burden than their US counterparts (38%). Given the recent focus, in the academic as well as general media, on the importance and severe implications of physician burnout, and the recognition of burnout as a disease by WHO, the timing of this publication for concrete organizational action seems propitious, especially since this analysis combines data from two continents with different institutional and educational frameworks, providing more granular data for a particularly immersive surgical specialty with a high rate of burnout.

Most recently, a costconsequence analysis reported that physician burnout costs approximately $4.6 bn each year to the US healthcare system, with a cost of $7600 per‐physician‐per‐year at the institutional level resulting from reduced clinical productivity and turnover [2]. While addressing these economic losses from burnout is important from an organizational and health system point of view, focusing on these alone would be missing the larger picture. It is only when we consider the depersonalization, emotional drainage, and loss of professional and personal accomplishment associated with burnout that we begin to realize the scope of this epidemic. Deservedly, burnout is being recognized as a ‘moral injury’ [3]. And indeed, it is a moral injury: when physicians working under systems that betray their purpose as a healer, the damage is not only professional and systematic, but deeply personal as well.

The constant act of balancing competing demands – the financial interests of the healthcare institutions, looming litigations and ever‐changing documentation requirements – has undermined effective human interactions with patients and diminished the zeal that drives physicians to spend a major part of their youth in training. Journalist Diane Silver defines moral injury as ‘a deep soul wound that pierces a person’s identity, sense of morality, and relationship to society’ [3]. Except in the context of healthcare delivery, this injury extends to deterioration of relationships with patients and fellow physicians. Indeed, burnout among physicians has been demonstrated to be associated with suboptimal patient care [4], and the consequent inability to deliver high‐quality care because of health system deficiencies leads to decline in physician well‐being and professional dissatisfaction [5].

While the urgency of addressing physician burnout is obvious, this study by Marchalik et al. is also valuable as it highlights some of the practices that are protective, revealing lessons that can be implemented. The authors report that burnout was significantly lower among residents who sought mental health services and those who had access to structured mentorship. Unsurprisingly, those who had a caring environment experienced less depersonalization and emotional drainage. This is an instructive lesson for the residency programme directors: if they want their most important human resource to flourish, they need to start building supportive work environments. This could start with pairing interns and residents with dedicated and experienced faculty mentors; these initiatives would facilitate career coaching and provide space where residents feel comfortable seeking information on mental healthcare.

Interestingly, the authors also found a significant doseresponse relationship between the number of non‐medical books residents read per month and decreased rates of burnout. This finding may surprise some healthcare administrators, who have routinely attempted to integrate ‘wellness’ and ‘mindfulness’ into clinical programmes to stimulate physician motivation, without much benefit. However, the positive relationship between non‐medical literature and medicine is an ancient one. Fortunately, in the last few decades, this relationship has witnessed a comeback and an increasing number of trainees are finding solace in their engagement with medical humanities and narrative medicine. These engagements have led to physicians developing emotional intelligence, empathy for patients and colleagues, and an opportunity to examine their role as healers [6]. This insight from the study should be another lesson for medical educators, who can encourage inclusion of reflections on life as a physician.

The epidemic of burnout among surgery residents requires immediate attention. Taking proactive action towards this is not only a matter of preventing economic loss or improving physician productivity, but an urgent ethical issue. All stakeholders – hospital administrators, healthcare policy‐makers, and regional physician leaders – must work together in developing inventive solutions to address the burnout epidemic. This will be essential to realizing the maximal potential of residency and reinstating purpose of clinical work.

References

  1. Marchalik, DGoldman, CCCarvalho, FFL et al. Resident burnout in USA and European urology residents: an international concern. BJU Int 2019124349‐ 56
  2. Han, SShanafelt, TDSinsky, CA et al. Estimating the attributable cost of physician burnout in the United States cost of physician burnout. Ann Intern Med 2019170784‐ 90
  3. Dean, WTalbot, SPhysicians aren’t ‘burning out.’ They’re suffering from moral injury. STAT News 2018. Available at: https://www.statnews.com/2018/07/26/physicians-not-burning-out-they-are-suffering-moral-injury/. Accessed May 29, 2019.
  4. Shanafelt, TDBradley, KAWipf, JEBack, ALBurnout and self‐reported patient care in an internal medicine residency program. Ann Intern Med 2002136358– 67
  5. Friedberg, MWChen, PGBusum, KR et al. Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems, and health policy. Rand Health Q 201431
  6. Bonebakker, VLiterature & medicine: humanities at the heart of health care: a hospital‐based reading and discussion program developed by the Maine humanities council. Acad Med 200378:963– 7

 

Residents’ podcast: Resident burnout

Maria Uloko is a Urology Resident at the University of Minnesota Hospital. In this podcast she discusses the following BJUI Article of the month:

Resident burnout in USA and European urology residents: an international concern

Abstract

Objective

To describe the prevalence and predictors of burnout in USA and European urology residents, as although the rate of burnout in urologists is high and associated with severe negative sequelae, the extent and predictors of burnout in urology trainees remains poorly understood.

Subjects and methods

An anonymous 32‐question survey of urology trainees across the USA and four European countries, analysing personal, programme, and institutional factors, was conducted. Burnout was assessed using the validated abridged Maslach Burnout Inventory. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models assessed drivers of burnout in the two cohorts.

Results

Overall, 40% of participants met the criteria for burnout as follows: Portugal (68%), Italy (49%), USA (38%), Belgium (36%), and France (26%). Response rates were: USA, 20.9%; Italy, 45.2%; Portugal, 30.5%; France, 12.5%; and Belgium, 9.4%. Burnout was not associated with gender or level of training. In both cohorts, work–life balance (WLB) dissatisfaction was associated with increased burnout (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, P < 0.001), whilst non‐medical reading (OR 0.6, P = 0.001) and structured mentorship (OR 0.4, P = 0.002) were associated with decreased burnout risk. Lack of access to mental health services was associated with burnout in the USA only (OR 3.5, P = 0.006), whilst more weekends on‐call was associated with burnout in Europe only (OR 8.3, P = 0.033). In both cohorts, burned out residents were more likely to not choose a career in urology again (USA 54% vs 19%, P < 0.001; Europe 43% vs 25%, P = 0.047).

Conclusion

In this study of USA and European urology residents, we found high rates of burnout on both continents. Despite regional differences in the predictors of burnout, awareness of the unique institutional drivers may help inform directions of future interventions.

BJUI Podcasts now available on iTunes, subscribe here https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/bju-international/id1309570262

August 2019 – About the cover

The Article of the Month for August is on work carried out by researchers at the Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, USA along with colleagues from Italy, France and Belgium: Resident burnout in USA and European urology residents: an international concern.

The cover image shows the Lincoln Memorial, which is located in the National Mall in Washington DC. It commemorates the 16th US President, Abraham Lincoln. Washington itself was named after the first US President, George Washington. It lies along the Potomac river and is surrounded by the states of Maryland and Virginia.

 

© istock.com/Stephen Emlund

© 2020 BJU International. All Rights Reserved.