Tag Archive for: bladder cancer

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Video: Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction by sigmoid colon

Prospective comparison of quality-of-life outcomes between ileal conduit urinary diversion and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy: a statistical model

Vishwajeet Singh, Rahul Yadav, Rahul Janak Sinha and Dheeraj Kumar Gupta
Department of Urology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

 

OBJECTIVE

• To conduct a prospective comparison of quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in patients who underwent ileal conduit (IC) urinary diversion with those who underwent orthotopic neobladder (ONB) reconstruction after radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancers.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• Between January 2007 and December 2012, 227 patients underwent radical cystectomy and either IC urinary diversion or ONB (sigmoid or ileal) reconstruction.

• Contraindications for ON were impaired renal function (serum creatinine >2 mg/dL), chronic inflammatory bowel disease, previous bowel resection and tumour involvement at the bladder neck/prostatic urethra. Patients who did not have these contraindications chose to undergo either IC or ONB reconstruction, after impartial counselling.

• Baseline characteristics, including demographic profile, body mass index, comorbidities, histopathology of the cystoprostatectomy (with lymph nodes) specimen, pathological tumour stage, postoperative complications, adjuvant therapy and relapse, were recorded and compared.

• The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire C30 version 3 was used to analyse QoL before surgery and 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery.

RESULTS

• Of the 227 patients, 28 patients in the IC group and 35 in the ONB group were excluded. The final analysis included 80 patients in the IC and 84 in the ONB group.

• None of the baseline characteristics were significantly different between the groups, except for age, but none of the baseline QoL variables were found to be correlated with age.

• In the preoperative phase, there were no significant differences in any of the QoL domains between the IC or the ONB groups. At 6, 12 and 18 months in the postoperative period, physical functioning (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), role functioning (P = 0.01, P = 0.01 and P = 0.003, respectively), social functioning (P = 0.01, P = 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively) and global health status/QoL (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) were better in patients in the ONB group than in those in the IC group and the differences were significant.

• The financial burden related to bladder cancer treatment was significantly lower in the ONB group than in the IC group at 6, 12 and 18 months of follow-up (P = 0.05, P = 0.05 and P = 0.005, respectively)

CONCLUSIONS

• ONB is better than IC in terms of physical functioning, role functioning, social functioning, global health status/QoL and financial expenditure.

• ONB reconstruction provides better QoL outcomes than does IC urinary diversion.

 

What gets Indy Gill REALLY excited?

Dr Indy Gill, as everyone knows, has always been a pioneer of minimally invasive surgery, and has continued to push the boundaries of this over the past 20 years. Some of this progress has been seriously exciting, both for us mere mortals who have visited his operating room or viewed his live surgery, and also for Dr Gill as he has continued to reinvent what is possible.   Tackling a Level II/III caval thrombus using robotic surgery, exploring nephron-sparing surgery with anatomically extreme tumours, and now zero ischaemia – all of this progress has been very thrilling indeed.

But last week, I realised that there is something that is capable of getting the great Dr Gill REALLY excited, and I thought I would share that with you.

It started after Indy accepted an invitation from myself and my colleague, Daniel Moon, to join our international faculty at the National Bladder and Kidney Cancer Symposium which we convene here in Melbourne. Our faculty already included Dr Mike Stifleman (NYU), Dr Colin Dinney (MD Anderson), Dr Simon Horenblas (National Cancer Institute, The Netherlands), Dr Nick James (University of Birmingham), and Dr Maha Hussein (University of Michigan), as well as an excellent faculty from around Australia and New Zealand. This symposium is convened at the world famous Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), one of the world’s greatest sporting arenas, and one of the most famous cricket grounds in the world. It recently broke the world record for attendance at an international test cricket match when over 91,000 people attended the Australia versus England “Ashes” match on Boxing Day.

I was aware that Indy receives about 1000 emails per day and we wanted to catch his eye as we planned the program. I therefore emailed him with the subject heading, “Opening the batting at the MCG?”, in the certain knowledge that as a self-confessed “cricket tragic”, he might just respond! And here is his response:

  

Apologies to those (me included) who do not understand “cricket-speak”! However one can tell that Indy, like everyone else I know from the sub-continent, is a big cricket fan. The stage was therefore set: our Symposium would benefit from Indy presenting a spectacular overview of advances in nephron-sparing surgery with the wonderful backdrop of one of the world’s greatest sporting arenas and a mecca for cricket lovers.

What we did not know was that by chance, one of the greatest cricketers of all time, legendary leg-spin bowler Shane Warne, was hosting a private charity cricket match in aid of The Shane Warne Foundation on the hallowed turf during our Symposium. As soon as we realised, we started plotting to see if we could arrange for the Urology Legend to meet the Cricket Legend. A few phone calls later and it had been agreed- “Warney” would meet Indy at 08:30 the next morning.

Put simply, I have never seen anybody so excited in my entire life. I don’t think Indy slept very much as he looked forward with child-like amazement to his encounter with one of the greatest cricket players of all time. He paced up and down somewhat nervously (I would say considerably more nervous than he would be before performing one of his live surgery spectaculars to a gigantic audience), as we waited for our escort to bring us to the home team changing room at the MCG. He seemed somewhat breathless, he was speaking terribly quickly, his eyes scanning nystagmus-like as he looked like someone having a supraventricular tachycardia.

Meanwhile in the auditorium upstairs, Indy’s colleague Dr Mihir Desai, another cricket tragic, was broadcasting a live robotic cystectomy from the University of Southern California to our auditorium. When we explained that Indy was a little delayed as he was meeting Shane Warne downstairs, this was met with an audible sigh along with some muttering from Dr Desai’s robot console as he clearly would much prefer to have been in Melbourne than in California at that particular moment. “Stop the procedure” he pleaded in vain, “if I leave now I can be there in 15 hours”.

And then the big moment arrived – Shane Warne, cricket legend, taker of over 700 Test wickets, deliverer of the “Ball of the Century”, and one of only five of Wisden’s Cricketers of the 20th Century, walked over to the star-struck urology legend and shook hands.

They chatted for about 10 minutes about various great cricketing moments and about mutual friends in Indian cricket. They both seemed to be thoroughly enjoying themselves and one could tell that Indy was relishing every moment he was spending in the company of true cricket royalty. Shane then happily signed an Australian cricket jersey before we finally dragged Indy back to the Symposium upstairs. I don’t think it is unreasonable to say that he was somewhat starstruck:

  

The moment was shared by Daniel Moon on Twitter using the official meeting hashtag #bkcs14:

Social media metrics supplied by Symplur at that time showed healthy activity for a sub-specialist uro-oncology meeting with about 250 delegates:

However, when Shane Warne re-tweeted us to his 1.46 million followers, the meeting statistics went through the roof! We had gone from 37,000 digital impressions to almost 1,500,000 impressions:

In the twisted world of social media statistics, #bkcs14 has become one of the biggest scientific meetings in the world this year!

Indy then returned to the relatively mundane world he normally inhabits by showing footage of a robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy with zero ischaemia for a 10cm interpolar tumour in a solitary kidney (including vascular reconstruction of a feeding vessel), followed by a super-human robotic resection of a kidney tumour with level II caval thrombus done as part of a live surgery broadcast to 1000 people. Interesting for sure, but not what gets him really excited.

Declan Murphy
Urologist and Associate Editor (Social Media), BJUI
Melbourne, Australia
Twitter: @declangmurphy

 

Article of the week: Quality of life after robotic cystectomy

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Short-term patient reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC)

Michael A. Poch, Andrew P. Stegemann, Shabnam Rehman, Mohamed A. Sharif, Abid Hussain, Joseph D. Consiglio*, Gregory E. Wilding* and Khurshid A. Guru

Departments of Urology and *Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To determine short-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) using the Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Body Image Scale (BIS).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• All patients undergoing RARC were enrolled in a quality assurance database.

• The patients completed two validated questionnaires, BCI and BIS, preoperatively and at standardised postoperative intervals.

• The primary outcome measure was difference in interval and baseline BCI and BIS scores.

• Complications were identified and classified by Clavien grade.

RESULTS

• In all, 43 patients completed pre- and postoperative questionnaires.

• There was a decline in the urinary domain at 0–1 month after RARC (P = 0.006), but this returned to baseline by 1–2 months.

• There was a decline in the bowel domain at 0–1 month (P < 0.001) and 1–2 months (P = 0.024) after RARC, but this returned to baseline by 2–4 months.

• The decline in BCI scores was greatest for the sexual function domain, but this returned to baseline by 16–24 months after RARC.

• Body image perception using BIS showed no significant change after RARC except at the 4–10 months period (P = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

• Based on BCI and BIS scores HRQL outcomes after RARC show recovery of urinary and bowel domains ≤6 months. Longer follow-up with a larger cohort of patients will help refine HRQL outcomes.

 

Editorial: The evolution of robotic cystectomy

A decade has passed since the publication of the first series of robot-assisted radical cystectomies in the BJUI by Menon et al. [1]. New technologies are fascinating, and many surgeons who aspire to leave a mark in history take the lead in pioneering new procedures. Others follow without waiting for any evidence to justify the adoption of new procedures. In this race, the opinion of the most important stakeholder, the patient, gets ignored.

Although their study has many methodological flaws, Guru et al. [2] have made the effort to collect data on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQL) after robot-assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Radical cystectomy is a morbid procedure with a serious impact on patients’ HRQL, no matter how it is performed. Loosing an organ which is responsible for the storage and evacuation of urine several times a day and replacing it with alternatives of continent or incontinent diversion has a serious impact on quality of life, as is evident from this study.

Robotic cystectomy is still evolving. With more experience, a few experts have ventured to perform intracorporeal reconstruction of the urinary diversion. While we await the long-term functional outcomes of this switch over in surgical approach, Guru et al. report the short-term HQRL outcomes in a series of 43 patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion at their institution. Most patients (n = 38) had ileal conduit urinary diversion. The authors went on to compare the postoperative outcomes of this cohort with another group of 70 patients who only completed the questionnaire after having undergone robot-assisted radical cystectomy and extracorporeal urinary diversion.

It is interesting to note that there was no significant difference in HRQL between those undergoing extracorporeal and those undergoing intracorporeal reconstruction. These outcomes reinforce the need to gather robust scientific evidence from properly conducted multi-centre, multinational randomized trials before the introduction of new procedures, instead of evaluation with retrospective studies. The urological community has embraced new technologies and patients have benefited a great deal from these innovative approaches; however, it is incumbent upon us to develop a culture of independent, unbiased data collection on outcomes. In this regard we must make the HQRL one of the most important quality indicators in assessment of the new procedures. Such an approach will enable us to justify the extra cost which society has to bear for our innovative trends in the management of old problems [3].

Read the full article

Muhammad Shamim Khan
Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital and King’s College London, London, UK

References

  1. Menon M, Hemal AK, Tewari A et al. Nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical cystoprostatectomy and urinary diversionBJU Int 2003; 92: 232–236
  2. Poch MA, Stegemann AP, Rehman S et al. Short-term patient reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC)BJU Int 2014; 113: 260–265
  3. Wang TT, Ahmed KA, Khan MS et al. Quality-of-care framework in urological cancers: where do we stand? BJU Int 2011; 109: 1436–1443

 

Article of the month: Seeing the light: HAL-PDD does not lead to lower recurrence rates of bladder tumours

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by prominent members of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from T. O’Brien and K. Thomas summarising their paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Prospective randomized trial of hexylaminolevulinate photodynamic-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C vs conventional white-light TURBT plus mitomycin C in newly presenting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Timothy O’Brien, Eleanor Ray, Kathryn Chatterton, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Ashish Chandra and Kay Thomas

Urology Centre, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To determine if photodynamic ‘blue-light’-assisted resection leads to lower recurrence rates in newly presenting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• We conducted a prospective randomized trial of hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) photodynamic diagnosis (PDD)-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C vs standard white-light-assisted TURBT plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C.

• A total of 249 patients with newly presenting suspected NMIBC enrolled at Guy’s Hospital between March 2005 and April 2010. Patients with a history of bladder cancer were excluded.

• The surgery was performed by specialist bladder cancer surgical teams.

• Of the eligible patients, 90% agreed to be randomized.

RESULTS

• Of the 249 patients, 209 (84%) had cancer and in 185 patients (89%) the cancer was diagnosed as NMIBC.

• There were no adverse events related to HAL in any of the patients randomized to the intravesical HAL-PDD arm.

• Single-shot intravesical mitomycin C was administered to 61/97 patients (63%) in the HAL-PDD arm compared with 68/88 patients (77%) in the white-light arm (P = 0.04)

• Intravesical HAL was an effective diagnostic tool for occult carcinoma in situ (CIS). Secondary CIS was identified in 25/97 patients (26%) in the HAL-PDD arm compared with 12/88 patients (14%) in the white-light arm (P = 0.04)

• There was no significant difference in recurrence between the two arms at 3 or 12 months: in the HAL-PDD and the white-light arms recurrence was found in 17/86 and 14/82 patients (20 vs 17%), respectively (P = 0.7) at 3 months, and in 10/63 and 15/67 patients (16 vs 22%), respectively (P = 0.4) at 12 months.

CONCLUSION

• Despite HAL-PDD offering a more accurate diagnostic assessment of a bladder tumour, in this trial we did not show that this led to lower recurrence rates of newly presenting NMIBC compared with the best current standard of care.

Read Previous Articles of the Week

 

Editorial: Does HAL assistance improve outcomes in patients who receive postoperative intravesical therapy?

There is growing evidence that hexaminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy increases detection of bladder cancer at the time of transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURBT) and that this results in lower recurrence rates [1, 2]. One limitation in many prior studies was the lack of standardisation about the use of immediate postoperative chemotherapy, which has been shown to reduce recurrence in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer [3]. This raises the question of whether the benefit of HAL in reducing recurrences would be eliminated if patients did in fact receive postoperative intravesical chemotherapy, which would help eradicate any missed residual tumour.

There have been several studies that attempt to bring clarity to this issue. A study by Geavlete et al. [4] randomised 362 patients suspected of having bladder cancer to HAL vs white-light (WL) TURBT with a single postoperative mitomycin C instillation given in all cases. The authors found that the recurrence rate at 3 months was lower in the HAL group (7.2% vs 15.8%) due to fewer ‘other site’ recurrences when compared with the WL group. There continued to be an advantage for the HAL group with lower 1- and 2-year recurrence rates compared with the WL group (21.6% vs 32.5% and 31.2% vs 45.6%, respectively). The study did not stratify patients specifically to those with low-grade non-invasive tumours but patients with single tumors had a trend toward less recurrence (23.3% vs 35.3%, P = 0.064).

Grossman et al. [2] published the long-term follow-up for 551 patients enrolled in a prospective, randomised study of HAL vs WL for Ta or T1 urothelial bladder cancer with similar rates of intravesical therapy in the two groups (46% and 45%, respectively). They found that the median time to recurrence was 9.4 months in the WL group and 16.4 months in the HAL group (P = 0.04) but they did not report specifically on patients who received postoperative intravesical therapy. A meta-analysis of raw data from prospective studies on 1345 patients with suspected bladder cancer evaluating HAL-assisted cystoscopy vs WL found that both patients with low- and high-risk disease had statistically significant lower recurrence rates [1]. This meta-analysis was unable to stratify based on use of postoperative intravesical therapy.

O’Brien et al. [5] performed a randomised prospective study of HAL-assisted vs conventional WL TURBT, with all patients scheduled to get a single treatment of postoperative intravesical mitomycin C. There were 86 and 82 patients with cancer in the HAL and WL groups who completed the 12 months follow-up, respectively. In this study, 63% and 77% of the HAL and WL patients received mitomycin C, respectively. There was an increased detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the HAL group (26% vs 14%) but no significant difference in recurrence at 3 and 12 months. When stratifying by low-grade tumours, the 3-month recurrence rates for HAL and WL were 19% vs 9% and at 12 months were 16% vs 22%, so that no significant differences were noted but the study was not powered to evaluate this subgrouping.

What can be concluded then about whether HAL assistance improves outcomes in patients who receive postoperative intravesical therapy? It appears the results are inconclusive and this is not surprising. The risk reduction of postoperative intravesical chemotherapy is primarily limited to patients with a single low-grade papillary tumour and one would need to treat 8.5 patients with peri-TUR chemotherapy to prevent one recurrence [3]. The benefits of peri-TUR chemotherapy in patients at intermediate- and high-risk are not well established [6]. Most of the studies of HAL-assisted TUR have not treated with postoperative intravesical therapy systematically. The studies that have tried to uniformly give postoperative therapy have not been sufficiently powered to evaluate those patients most likely to benefit, namely low-grade non-invasive cancer. As such, one cannot determine whether the benefit of potentially detecting additional low-grade tumours by HAL in patients with low-risk disease could be matched by postoperative intravesical therapy and such a study would require a very large number of low-grade solitary papillary tumours. However, it would minimise the benefits of HAL to focus on the benefit in the lowest risk patients. A meta-analysis of randomised trials found that HAL reduced the risk of recurrence independent of level of risk, such that there was reduced recurrence in patients with CIS, T1 and high-grade disease [1]. These are patients for which immediate postoperative intravesical therapy has shown minimal benefit and for which the benefit of HAL cannot be explained away. Furthermore a small but meaningful number of low-risk patients can be found to have intermediate- or high-risk disease, which would change their subsequent management [4]. As such if one had to choose between approaches rather than apply both, the use of HAL would appear to result in a greater benefit in managing patients with bladder cancer.

Yair Lotan
Department of Urology, UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA

Read the full article

References

  1. Burger M, Grossman HB, Droller M et al. Photodynamic diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data. Eur Urol 2013; 64: 846-54
  2. Grossman HB, Stenzl A, Fradet Y et al. Long-term decrease in bladder cancer recurrence with hexaminolevulinate enabled fluorescence cystoscopy. J Urol 2012; 188: 58–62
  3. Sylvester RJ, Oosterlinck W, van der Meijden AP. A single immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol 2004; 171: 2186–2190
  4. Geavlete B, Multescu R, Georgescu D, Jecu M, Stanescu F, Geavlete P. Treatment changes and long-term recurrence rates after hexaminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy: does it really make a difference in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)? BJU Int 2012; 109: 549–556
  5. O’Brien T, Ray E, Chatterton K, Khan S, Chandra A, Thomas K. Prospective randomized trial of hexylaminolevulinate photodynamic-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C vs conventional white-light TURBT plus mitomycin C in newly presenting non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. BJU Int 2013; 112:1096–1104
  6. Kamat AM, Lotan YR. Perioperative intravesical therapy after transurethral resection for bladder cancer. J Urol 2010; 183: 19–20

Video: The two sides of blue light TURBT: better assessment but no lower recurrence rates

Prospective randomized trial of hexylaminolevulinate photodynamic-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C vs conventional white-light TURBT plus mitomycin C in newly presenting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Timothy O’Brien, Eleanor Ray, Kathryn Chatterton, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Ashish Chandra and Kay Thomas

Urology Centre, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To determine if photodynamic ‘blue-light’-assisted resection leads to lower recurrence rates in newly presenting non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• We conducted a prospective randomized trial of hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) photodynamic diagnosis (PDD)-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C vs standard white-light-assisted TURBT plus single-shot intravesical mitomycin C.

• A total of 249 patients with newly presenting suspected NMIBC enrolled at Guy’s Hospital between March 2005 and April 2010. Patients with a history of bladder cancer were excluded.

• The surgery was performed by specialist bladder cancer surgical teams.

• Of the eligible patients, 90% agreed to be randomized.

RESULTS

• Of the 249 patients, 209 (84%) had cancer and in 185 patients (89%) the cancer was diagnosed as NMIBC.

• There were no adverse events related to HAL in any of the patients randomized to the intravesical HAL-PDD arm.

• Single-shot intravesical mitomycin C was administered to 61/97 patients (63%) in the HAL-PDD arm compared with 68/88 patients (77%) in the white-light arm (P = 0.04)

• Intravesical HAL was an effective diagnostic tool for occult carcinoma in situ (CIS). Secondary CIS was identified in 25/97 patients (26%) in the HAL-PDD arm compared with 12/88 patients (14%) in the white-light arm (P = 0.04)

• There was no significant difference in recurrence between the two arms at 3 or 12 months: in the HAL-PDD and the white-light arms recurrence was found in 17/86 and 14/82 patients (20 vs 17%), respectively (P = 0.7) at 3 months, and in 10/63 and 15/67 patients (16 vs 22%), respectively (P = 0.4) at 12 months.

CONCLUSION

• Despite HAL-PDD offering a more accurate diagnostic assessment of a bladder tumour, in this trial we did not show that this led to lower recurrence rates of newly presenting NMIBC compared with the best current standard of care.

Bladder Cancer: a stagnant foe?

This month’s topic for the Twitter-based International Urology Journal Club #urojc was bladder cancer, with a paper titled Unaltered oncological outcomes of radical cystectomy with extended lymphadenectomy over three decades’ by Zehnder et al, published online in July 2013. Open access to the paper was kindly provided by the BJUI.

 Zehnder and colleagues undertook a retrospective analysis of the University of Southern California cohort and identified 1488 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection between 1998 and 2005. They also included 190 patients from the University of Bern cohort to determine outcomes in patients with clinical N0 disease who were upstaged on pathology to node positive disease. Analysis, performed based on decade of intervention, showed no significant difference in overall survival (OS) or recurrence free survival (RFS) over the three decades. 10-year RFS was 78-80% for organ confined, lymph node negative, 53-60% in locally advanced, LN –ve and 30% in LN positive patients.

 

 

Firstly, it has certainly been suggested that the overall survival and cancer free survival outcomes are not as good in broader population based studies (Ontario Cancer Registry). Why?

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the SEER database has shown that cancer specific survival and overall mortality has not improved for any clinical stage of bladder cancer and in fact suggests that the incidence is increasing in the United States.

 

 

And of course, we must always look at the study design and determine whether the outcomes are reflective of the patient populations that we see in practice.

 


 

The roles of neo- and adjuvant chemotherapy were discussed at length. Only 6% of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with worse OS and RFS in multivariate analysis. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy actually almost doubled from the 80’s to 90’s, stable in the 00’s at 29%.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

If neoadjuvant chemotherapy is so widely recommended, why has its use failed to take off?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jim Catto suggested an excellent clinical pathway for the implementation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

If indeed bladder cancer is the poor cousin of prostate cancer, why has progress stagnated and what can we change?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So what are my humble take home messages from the discussion surrounding this month’s #urojc paper?

  1. Current data suggests that we have made no significant progress in bladder cancer outcomes over the past 30 years
  2. Early referral and diagnosis coupled with timely intervention key; be wary of progression in context of high grade NMIBC
  3. Both surgeon volume and hospital volume are thought to be independent predictors of overall survival. Patie nts do best at a high volume facility under the care of a high-volume Uro-oncologist in a multidisciplinary context
  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, despite randomized controlled trial evidence in favour of its use, has poor uptake in a real world setting. Advances in dense dose regimens (MVAC and Phase III GC underway) with resultant improvement in progression free survival, lower toxicity profile and fewer dose delays make for an attractive partner to radical cystectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection.

To finish with the words of the self-proclaimed Urology King of Twitter, Dr Ben Davies:

 

 

 

Winner of the best tweet prize for July’s #urojc was Mike Leveridge from Queens University, Canada – he was certainly a little frustrated with the apparent lack of progress we have made. The July #urojc Best Tweet Prize was kindly supported by the Nature Journal “Prostate Cancer Prostatic Diseases” which is edited by Dr Stephen Freedland and will be a complimentary 12 month online access to the journal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do join us for the August #urojc which commences on Sunday 4th/Monday 5th depending on your time zone.

Dr Helen Nicholson is an Australian Urology Trainee, currently based at The Sydney Adventist Hospital, NSW. Tweeted initially under duress, now a voluntary convert @DrHLN

 

Comments on this blog are now closed.

 

 

Article of the week: Preventing biofilm in wireless capsule bladder endoscopy

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video of in-vivo trials in sheep .

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Novel anti-biofilm mechanism for wireless capsule endoscopy in the urinary tract: preliminary study in a sheep model

Amos Neheman*, Claude Schulman and Ofer Yossepowitch†§

*Urology Department, Meir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, Department of Urology, University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, and §Institute of Urology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson, Petah Tikva, Israel

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To develop and test the safety and feasibility of a novel anti-biofilm mechanism configured for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in a sheep bladder model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

• A WCE mechanism, designed for long-term bladder monitoring, was developed and introduced into a sheep bladder for 5 months.

• The transparency of the surface was assessed by evaluating a resolution target placed inside the capsule at serial intervals using cystoscopy under general anaesthesia.

• Animal behaviour, voiding patterns and urine cultures were monitored throughout the study.

• At study termination, the capsule was extracted and assessed using scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS

• The resolution target was visualized clearly at all investigation points.

• No notable adverse effects were noted during the entire follow-up period and no urinary tract infection occurred.

• Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the efficacy of the technology to prevent biofilm formation and surface encrustation.

CONCLUSIONS

• We report a novel technology that effectively prevents biofilm formation on the outer surface of foreign objects in the urinary tract.

• Further studies are under way to test the applicability of this technology in bladder WCE to enable high-quality wireless image transmission.

 

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Editorial: A promising solution for biofilm inhibition in the bladder, but is the application of wireless capsule cystoscopy practical?

The study by Neheman et al. follows up on an idea first proposed in 2009 by Gettman and Swain to adapt wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) technology for cystoscopy. Unlike the gastrointestinal tract where the small bowel is not endoscopically accessible making WCE appealing and advantageous, the idea of wireless capsule cystoscopy (WCC) competes with a minor procedure, office cystoscopy, that does not require anaesthesia or sedation and takes only a few minutes to perform. Furthermore, although the authors suggest that WCC would shift the labour associated with bladder cancer monitoring from practising urologists to ancillary health team providers, flexible office cystoscopy is a procedure already routinely performed by physician extenders in many offices. Nevertheless, the concept proposed by Neheman et al. is innovative and intriguing. The potential advantage of a wireless capsule cystoscope placed in the bladder safely for up to a 2-year time period, and thereby reducing the inconvenience and cost of repeated cystoscopies, could be a significant advance.

It should be emphasized that despite the title, no WCE was actually performed. The real value to the present study is the novel anti-biofilm mechanism developed that would be needed for any device implanted in the bladder for the long term. The device was housed in a semi-permeable silicone balloon filled with mineral oil that allowed a continuous slow diffusion of oil across the membrane. Based on the evidence provided in only one animal, it seems this continuous permeation of oil can interfere with surface protein adherence and consequently bacteria adhesion and biofilm creation. Certainly, this concept needs to be tested further in additional animals, aggressively exposed to bacteria, and for longer periods.

Although I am unconvinced that the concept of WCC provides significant value, the development of this biofilm inhibition technique could be pioneering. I read this study and wondered if ureteric stents and Foley catheters could be designed and impregnated with mineral oil to be released gradually. Perhaps the balloon of a Foley catheter could be redesigned and filled with mineral oil that is then released along the catheter’s entire length in a similar fashion. The true Holy Grail is the prevention of encrustation and biofilm formation on these relatively mundane devices whose chronic exchange for many patients is more costly than bladder cancer surveillance. I look forward to additional work from the authors exploring the potential of this technology.

Jeffrey A. Cadeddu
Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA

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