Tag Archive for: Lower urinary tract symptoms

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Article of the Week: Sitting time, physical activity and the risk of LUTS

Every Week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Sitting time, physical activity and the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms: a cohort study

Heung Jae Park*, Chang Hoo Park, Yoosoo Chang§¶ and Seungho Ryu§¶

 

*Department of Urology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Ulsan University, Gangneung, South Korea, Centre for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Centre, §Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea, and Department of Clinical Research Design & Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea

 

Abstract

Objectives

To examine the association of sitting time and physical activity level with the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a large sample of Korean men.

Materials and Methods

A cohort study was performed in 69 795 Korean men, free of LUTS at baseline, who were followed up annually or biennially for a mean of 2.6 years. Physical activity level and sitting time were assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. LUTS were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and clinically significant LUTS were defined as an IPSS score ≥8.

Results

Over 175 810.4 person‐years, 9 217 people developed significant LUTS (incidence rate, 39.0 per 1 000 person‐years). In a multivariable‐adjusted model, both low physical activity level and prolonged sitting time were independently associated with the incidence of LUTS. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for incident LUTS comparing minimally active and health‐enhancing physically active groups vs the inactive group were 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.87–0.99), respectively (P for trend 0.011). The hazard ratios (95% CIs) for LUTS comparing 5–9 and ≥10 h/day sitting time vs <5 h/day were 1.08 (95% CI 1.00–1.24) and 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.24), respectively (P for trend <0.001).

Conclusions

Prolonged sitting time and low physical activity levels were positively associated with the development of LUTS in a large sample of middle‐aged Korean men. This result supports the importance of both reducing sitting time and promoting physical activity for preventing LUTS.

Article of the Month: The UK‐ROPE Study

Every Month, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post. retainedfirefighter provides more articles like this one. Follow for more articles like this one songsforromance .

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one .

Efficacy and safety of prostate artery embolization for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an observational study and propensity‐matched comparison with transurethral resection of the prostate (the UK‐ROPE study)

 

Alistair F. Ray*, John Powell†‡, Mark J. Speakman§, Nicholas T. LongfordRanan DasGupta**, Timothy Bryant††, Sachin Modi††, Jonathan Dyer‡‡, Mark Harris‡‡Grace Carolan-Rees* and Nigel Hacking††

 

*Cedar, Cardiff University/Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Cardiff, Centre for Health Technology Evaluation, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, §Department of Urology, Taunton and Somerset NHS Trust, Taunton, SNTL Statistics Research and Consulting, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, **Department of Urology, St. MaryHospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, ††Department of Interventional Radiology, and ‡‡Department of Urology, Southampton General Hospital, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK

 

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Abstract

Objectives

To assess the efficacy and safety of prostate artery embolization (PAE) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to conduct an indirect comparison of PAE with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).

Patients and Methods

As a joint initiative between the British Society of Interventional Radiologists, the British Association of Urological Surgeons and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, we conducted the UK Register of Prostate Embolization (UK‐ROPE) study, which recruited 305 patients across 17 UK urological/interventional radiology centres, 216 of whom underwent PAE and 89 of whom underwent TURP. The primary outcomes were International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) improvement in the PAE group at 12 months post‐procedure, and complication data post‐PAE. We also aimed to compare IPSS score improvements between the PAE and TURP groups, using non‐inferiority analysis on propensity‐score‐matched patient pairs. The clinical results and urological measurements were performed at clinical sites. If you want more articles like this one follow us at salbreux-pesage . IPSS and other questionnaire‐based results were mailed by patients directly to the trial unit managing the study. All data were uploaded centrally to the UK‐ROPE study database.

Results

The results showed that PAE was clinically effective, producing a median 10‐point IPSS improvement from baseline at 12 months post‐procedure. PAE did not appear to be as effective as TURP, which produced a median 15‐point IPSS score improvement at 12 months post‐procedure. These findings are further supported by the propensity score analysis, in which we formed 65 closely matched pairs of patients who underwent PAE and patients who underwent TURP. In terms of IPSS and quality‐of‐life (QoL) improvement, there was no evidence of PAE being non‐inferior to TURP. Patients in the PAE group had a statistically significant improvement in maximum urinary flow rate and prostate volume reduction at 12 months post‐procedure. PAE had a reoperation rate of 5% before 12 months and 15% after 12 months (20% total rate), and a low complication rate. Of 216 patients, one had sepsis, one required a blood transfusion, four had local arterial dissection and four had a groin haematoma. Two patients had non‐target embolization that presented as self‐limiting penile ulcers. Additional patient‐reported outcomes, pain levels and return to normal activities were very encouraging for PAE. Seventy‐one percent of PAE cases were performed as outpatient or day cases. In contrast, 80% of TURP cases required at least 1 night of hospital stay, and the majority required 2 nights.Here excelpasswordrecovery you can check the best articles of the month.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that PAE provides a clinically and statistically significant improvement in symptoms and QoL, although some of these improvements were greater in the TURP arm. The safety profile and quicker return to normal activities may be seen as highly beneficial by patients considering PAE as an alternative treatment to TURP, with the concomitant advantages of reduced length of hospital stay and need for admission after PAE. PAE is an advanced embolization technique demanding a high level of expertise, and should be performed by experienced interventional radiologists who have been trained and proctored appropriately. The use of cone‐beam computed tomography is encouraged to improve operator confidence and minimize non‐target embolizations. The place of PAE in the care pathway is between that of drugs and surgery, allowing the clinician to tailor treatment to individual patients’ symptoms, requirements and anatomical variation.

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Editorial: Prostate Artery Embolization

Andrea Tubaro, in his editorial for European Association of Urology 2006 [1], discussed the paradigm shift in the surgical management of BPH from open surgery to TURP, and postulated that more refined and less invasive techniques would further dictate the treatment pathway to reduce cost, manage more high-risk surgical cases and reduce blood loss in a population that increasingly is on antithrombotic and anticoagulant medication, to ease the management of large prostates, and to manage BPH as a day case procedure [1].

Interventional radiology has been at the forefront of minimally invasive procedures. In 1953, Seldinger [2] published his ingenious method of introducing a catheter into the vascular system after obtaining needle access and, 10 years later, Dotter recognized the potential of catheters to be used in performing intravascular surgery [3]. Superselective prostate artery embolization (PAE) was first described by DeMeritt et al. [4]. Pisco et al. [5] from Portugal and Carnevale et al. [6] from Brazil have rightly been credited with the development of the clinical service for PAE in BPH. The study by Pisco et al. in 2016, in 630 consecutive patients with moderate to severe LUTS refractory to medical therapy for at least 6 months, showed 81.9% medium-term and 76.3% long-term clinical success rates, with no urinary incontinence or sexual dysfunction reported. Carnevale et al. [6], in 2014, described a modified PAE technique that can lead to greater ischaemia and infarction of the prostate gland with the possibility of better clinical outcomes [6].

In this edition of BJUI, the UK Register of Prostate Embolization (ROPE) study [7] provides evidence for the efficacy and safety for PAE for LUTS secondary to BPH and makes an indirect comparison with TURP. What is strikingly unique and to be applauded in this registry is the collaboration between the British Society of Interventional Radiology, the BAUS and National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE).

A total of 305 patients across 17 UK centres were enrolled, and results were analysed over 12 months. They noted that patients who underwent PAE had a statistically significant improvement in urinary flow rate and reduction in prostate volume after the procedure. In terms of IPSS and quality-of-life improvement, there was no evidence of PAE being non-inferior to TURP. Seventy-one percent of PAE cases were performed as outpatients or day cases. By contrast, 80% of TURPs required at least one night of hospital stay and a majority two nights [7].

In April 2018, NICE revised their guidelines and have now approved PAE with certain recommendations [8].

The key to successful PAE, in our opinion, is careful patient selection. At our centre, we receive tertiary referrals of patients with very large prostates, many of whom are comorbid and elderly. We embraced the option of PAE and were delighted to be able to contribute a number of cases to the ROPE study. Our overall experience is now in excess of 200 cases and we are aware that some patients will do well, others less well. It is becoming clearer who those patients may be; those who do well tend to be those with the larger prostate with large lateral lobes and adenomatous predominant BPH, without a significant middle lobe, with big prostate vessels and with lower risk of significant renal insufficiency. The large middle lobes can ball-valve and still obstruct, and preoperative arterial CT could identify those with heavily calcified, severely diseased internal iliac arteries that may be difficult to embolize. Nonetheless, those patients who are at highest risk from surgery and those who wish to minimize the risks of sexual dysfunction or incontinence may justifiably opt for PAE as a less invasive outpatient procedure. And why should they not? For many, simply the opportunity to avoid long-term medication with a-blockers or 5-a-reductase inhibitors is the real benefit, and undergoing PAE does not exclude one from surgery afterwards.

Level 1 evidence is of course a fundamental requirement for a change in definitive practice; the ROPE study is a comparative cohort of two fundamentally different procedures. Our institute is a surgical centre for the management of massive BPH and we are convinced that PAE has a place in the management of some of our patients, but could prevention be better than cure? Ambitious it may be, but who is to say whether early PAE in symptomatic patients might reduce the progression of clinical BPH, avoiding the morbidity and cost of long-term medical treatment culminating in surgery. Perhaps the real challenge highlighted by the ROPE study is that the time has come to consider a randomized controlled trial of prostate embolization vs early non-surgical treatment of BPH (short title ‘PREVENT-BPH’), with randomization to PAE or either a-blockers and/or 5-a-reductase inhibitors or placebo. The ROPE study suggests that PAE at the least deserves a randomized controlled trial including it vs other non-invasive treatments.

Tarun Sabharwal and Rick Popert
Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK

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References

  1. Tubaro A. BPH treatment: a paradigm shift. Eur Urol 2006; 49: 939–41
  2. Seldinger SI. Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriography; a new technique. Acta Radiol 1953; 39: 368–76
  3. Dotter CT, Judkins MP. Transluminal treatment of atherosclerotic obstructions: description of a new technique and preliminary report of its applications. Circulation 1964; 30: 654–70
  4. DeMeritt JS, Elmasri FF, Esposito MP, Rosenberg GS. Relief of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related bladder outlet obstruction after transarterial polyvinyl alcohol prostate embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2000; 11: 767–70
  5. Pisco JM, Bilhim T, Pinheiro LC et al. Medium-and long-term outcome of prostate artery embolization for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: results in 630 patients. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2016; 27: 1115–22
  6. Carnevale FC, Moreira AM, Antunes AA. The “PErFecTED Technique”: proximal embolisation first, then embolise distal for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2014; 37: 1602–5
  7. Ray AF, Powell J, Speakman MJ et al. Efficacy and safety of prostate artery embolization for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an observational study and propensity-matched comparison with transurethral resection of the prostate (the UK-ROPE study). BJU Int 2018; 122: 270–82
  8. NICE Guidance. Prostate artery embolisation for lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int 2018;121: 825-34

 

Article of the Month: The Metabolic Syndrome & the Prostate

Every Month, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Association between metabolic syndrome and intravesical prostatic protrusion in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms (MIPS Study)

Giorgio I. Russo*, Federica Regis*, Pietro Spatafora, Jacopo Frizzi, Daniele Urzı*, Sebastiano Cimino*, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Mauro Gacci† and Giuseppe Morgia*

 

*Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy, and Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

 

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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and morphological features of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), including total prostate volume (TPV), transitional zone volume (TZV) and intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP).

Patients and Methods

Between January 2015 and January 2017, 224 consecutive men aged >50 years presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BPE were recruited to this multicentre cross‐sectional study. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were performed to verify factors associated with IPP, TZV and TPV.

Results

Patients with MetS were observed to have a significant increase in IPP (P < 0.01), TPV (P < 0.01) and TZV (P = 0.02). On linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and metabolic factors of MetS, we found that high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was negatively associated with IPP (r = −0.17), TPV (r = −0.19) and TZV (r = −0.17), while hypertension was positively associated with IPP (r = 0.16), TPV (r = 0.19) and TZV (r = 0.16). On multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and factors of MetS, hypertension (categorical; odds ratio [OR] 2.95), HDL cholesterol (OR 0.94) and triglycerides (OR 1.01) were independent predictors of TPV ≥ 40 mL. We also found that HDL cholesterol (OR 0.86), hypertension (OR 2.0) and waist circumference (OR 1.09) were significantly associated with TZV ≥ 20 mL. On age‐adjusted logistic regression analysis, MetS was significantly associated with IPP ≥ 10 mm (OR 34.0; P < 0.01), TZV ≥ 20 mL (OR 4.40; P < 0.01) and TPV ≥ 40 mL (OR 5.89; P = 0.03).

Conclusion

We found an association between MetS and BPE, demonstrating a relationship with IPP.

Editorial: The metabolic syndrome and the prostate

The metabolic syndrome has been known for ~80 years 1 and is important to both urologists and their patients because of a two‐fold increase in the relative risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease‐related events and a five‐fold increase for developing Type 2 diabetes as compared to people without the syndrome. Abdominal obesity is well known to be an important underlying risk factor for precipitating the syndrome and obesity is also known to markedly increase the risk for developing BPH and its symptoms 2. There are other associations that may be relevant here including an association between a lack of physical activity and the severity of LUTS 3, and a close correlation between the degree of prostatic and systemic inflammation and the degree of LUTS 4. Systemic inflammation is implicated in the metabolic syndrome with pro‐inflammatory cytokines due to the adipose tissue load, such as C‐reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, being involved in causing the insulin resistance, which is a diagnostic feature of this condition 5.

The current study connects the metabolic syndrome with an anatomical feature of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), namely intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) 6. Each of the diagnostic features of metabolic syndrome was examined separately such as reduced high‐density lipoprotein (HDL)‐cholesterol and raised triglycerides. Hypertriglyceridaemia is due to an overproduction of very‐low‐density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the liver and a reduction of lipoprotein lipase in peripheral tissues, and reflects the insulin resistant condition responsible for the metabolic syndrome 5. In this study, high triglyceride levels were an independent predictor of a total prostatic volume (TPV) of >40 mL. The other major lipoprotein abnormality in metabolic syndrome is a reduction in HDL‐cholesterol levels, which is due to both a decrease in the cholesterol content of this lipoprotein and an increase in its clearance from the circulation. In this study by Russo et al. 6, HDL levels were negatively associated with IPP and both total and transition zone volumes, and they postulate that these associations may be mediated by the effect of dyslipidaemia on prostate cells and prostatic inflammation.

Hypertension is another diagnostic feature that the authors address. There is increased renal sodium reabsorption, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and vasoconstriction related to an increase in fatty acids in this syndrome. Hypertension, defined as systolic ≥135 mmHg, diastolic ≥85 mmHg or on current treatment, was positively associated with IPP and also associated with a TPV of ≥40 mL and a transitional zone volume of ≥20 mL in this study 6. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were not as strongly related to the features of BPH but ultimately are key drivers of the metabolic syndrome and management of these features is a cornerstone of the management of the whole condition.

Lifestyle and dietary interventions can address many of the aspects of this insulin‐resistant state with medical management of the metabolic features being used to supplement these. The same interventions are also successful in decreasing LUTS 3, which should not be surprising given the above. The longstanding aphorism that ‘heart healthy is prostate healthy’ appears to not only apply to the treatment of prostate cancer but also to that of BPH and urologists remain in an important position to identify men at significant risk.

Peter J. Gilling
Urology, Bay of Plenty District Health Board Clinical SchoolTauranga, New Zealand

 

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References
  • Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J, IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definitionLancet 2005366: 1059–62

 

  • Parsons JK, Sarma AV, McVary K, Wei JT. Obesity and benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical connections, emerging etiological paradigms and future directionsJ Urol 2013189 (Suppl.): S102–6.

 

  • Fowke JH, Phillips S, Koyama T et al. Association between physical activity, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostate volumeBJU Int 2013111: 122–8

 

  • Burris MB, Cathro HP, Kowalik CG et al. Lower urinary tract symptom improvement after radical prostatectomy correlates with degree of prostatic inflammationUrology 201483: 186–90

 

  • Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndromeLancet 2005365: 1415–28

 

  • Russo GI, Regis F, Spatafora P et al. Association between metabolic syndrome and intravesical prostatic protrusion in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms (MIPS Study)BJU Int 2018121: 799–804.

 

Article of the Week: eNOS G894T gene polymorphism and responsiveness to a selective α1-blocker in BPH/LUTS

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

The association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T gene polymorphism with responsiveness to a selective α1-blocker in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia related lower urinary tract symptoms

Yung-Chin Lee*,, Yung-Shun Juan*,,, Chia-Chu Liu*,,§, Bo-Ying Bao,**,††, Chii-Jye
Wang*,, Wen-Jeng Wu*,, Chun-Nung Huang*,† and Shu-Pin Huang*,,‡‡
*Department of Urology, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, §Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Pingtung Hospital, Pingtung,

 

Department of Pharmacy, **Sex Hormone Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, ††Department of Nursing, Asia University, Taichung, and ‡‡Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Objective

To prospectively investigate the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T gene polymorphism with responsiveness to a selective α1-blocker in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia related lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS), as nitric oxide has recently gained increasing recognition as an important neurotransmitter of functions in the lower urinary tract.

Patients and Methods

In all, 136 men with BPH/LUTS were recruited from urology outpatient clinics in a university hospital. Oral therapy with doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) 4 mg once-daily was given for 12 weeks. The drug efficacy was assessed by the changes from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR) at 12 weeks of treatment. The ‘responders’ to doxazosin GITS were defined as those who had a total IPSS decrease of >4 points from baseline. eNOS G894T polymorphism was determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

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Results

Patients had statistically significant improvements in total IPSS, quality of life score, and Qmax (P < 0.01) after a 12-week period of treatment. Using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and IPSS, our results showed that being a eNOS 894T allele carrier was an independent risk factor for being a drug non-responder (P = 0.03, odds ratio 4.19). Moreover, a decreased responder rate (P = 0.01), as well as the lower improvements in IPSS (P = 0.02) and Qmax (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with increment in the T allele number.

Conclusions

The presence of the eNOS 894T allele had a significantly negative impact on responsiveness to a selective α1-blocker in BPH/LUTS treatment, suggesting that eNOS G894T gene polymorphism may be a genetic susceptibility factor for α1-blocker efficacy in men with BPH/LUTS.

Editorial: Responsiveness to Medical BPH Therapy – Is There a Genetic Factor?

In this issue, Lee et al. [1] from Taiwan demonstrate that the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T gene polymorphism predicts responsiveness to α1-blocker therapy in men with BPH/LUTS.

There is a long-standing interest in the establishment of a genetic marker for BPH/LUTS predicting clinical status, the natural history and – ideally – also responsiveness to for example medical therapy. The high prevalence of disease, the socioeconomic impact of diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, and the availability of drugs (5α-reductase inhibitors) that alter the natural course of the disease justify the intensive search for a genetic marker for BPH/LUTS.

The few familial and twin studies suggest a (moderate) genetic background for this disease to an extent similar to other chronic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus type II [2, 3]. However, BPH/LUTS is a complex disorder and it is very unlikely that the pathogenesis can be reduced to a single gene or gene defect. Most likely, genetic alterations – besides inflammation, endocrine, myogenic, neurogenic, and morphological factors – act as co-factors.

Within the past decade numerous polymorphisms in the steroid-metabolism pathway, in cytokine genes, in the vitamin D receptor gene, the α-adrenoceptor gene, in homeobox genes, in the angiotensin converting enzyme, the glutathione S-transferase gene, and in the nitric oxide system (just to mention the most frequently studied ones) have been correlated to several clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS, such as symptom status, prostate volume, maximum urinary flow rate and the natural history of the disease [4, 5]. None of these studies provided compelling evidence that one of these polymorphisms (or combinations thereof) could serve as a clinically relevant marker [4, 5]. As indicated by Cartwright et al. [5], many of these genetic studies are hampered by a small sample size, lack of genotyping quality control, inadequate adjustment for populations from heterogeneous descent groups, and poorly defined/inhomogeneous study endpoints.

There is increasing evidence that the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway plays an important role in controlling the smooth muscle tone of the lower urinary tract. Decreases in the NO/cGMP pathway with age would result in decreased levels of intracellular cGMP and calcium, leading to less smooth muscle relaxation of the bladder and the prostate, thus worsening LUTS. NO is synthesised by at least three isoenzymes of NOS, inducible NOS (iNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS) and eNOS [1]. The close relationship between NOS/NO pathway and the pathophysiology of BPH/LUTS was the rationale for the study by Lee et al. [1]. Using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and IPSS, the data showed that the eNOS 894T allele carrier was an independent factor for drug non-responders [1]. However, responsiveness to α1-blocker therapy was also strongly dependent on diabetes mellitus and hypertension, suggesting that the metabolic syndrome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BPH/LUTS [1]. This is indeed the first study showing that a genetic factor is predictive of the responsiveness to medical BPH/LUTS therapy, therefore this study is significant.

Further studies in populations with other genetic backgrounds (e.g. Caucasian) are required to confirm and to generalise these data. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been proposed to act in BPH/LUTS via the NO systems; therefore, it would be interesting to test this genetic marker also in men treated with tadalafil 5 mg/day. Finally, one has to be aware of the fact that the authors have tested α-blocker monotherapy. All major guidelines recommend a combination of α-blocker and 5α-reductase inhibitor for men with larger prostates (e.g. prostate volume >30–40 mL) [6]. The mean prostate volume in this cohort was 35 mL suggesting that, according to guideline recommendations, these men would have required combined therapy [6].

Read the full article
Stephan Madersbacher, Professor and Chairman
Department of Urology, Kaiser-Franz-Josef Spital, Vienna, Austria

 

References

 

 

2 Partin AW, Page WF, Lee BR, Sanda MG, Miller RN, Walsh PCConcordance rates for benign prostatic disease among twins suggest hereditary inuence. Urology 1994; 44: 64650

 

3 Rohrmann S, Fallin MD, Page WF et al. Concordance rates and modiable risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms in twins. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 41927

 

4 Konwar R, Chattopadhyay N, Bid HK. Genetic polymorphism and pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int 2008; 102: 53643

 

 

6 Gravas S, Bach T, Bachmann A et al. Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Male LUTS. Available at: www.uroweb.org. Accessed March 2016.

 

The Urological Ten Commandments

Capture“It is my ambition to say in ten sentences what others say in a whole book.” – Friedrich Nietzsche

The EAU guidelines on lower urinary tract symptoms have been published recently.  These contain 36,000 words.  It was pointed out to me that the American declaration of independence contained 1300 words and The Ten Commandments just 179 words.

The challenge was therefore to write ten commandments for urology in 179 words.  The rules I set were that I should write them whilst keeping  the spirit of the structure of the decalogue as closely as possible.  (It may be worth rereading the original before reading on).  So here goes.

1) I am a logical specialty. Thou shall investigate thoroughly prior to undertaking intervention for I am a specialty that avoids surprises.
2) Though interested in the whole of medicine thou will perform no other procedures other than urological.
3) Thou shalt not base intervention on old imaging for the clinical situation could have changed.
4) Remember that 80% of diagnoses can be made with history alone.  Thou shalt listen carefully to your patient to this end.
5) Honour sound surgical principles.  Urological tissue is forgiving but anastamoses under tension will not heal.
6) Thou shall not ignore haematuria.
7) Thou shall not leave a stent and forget it has been placed.
8) Thou shall not adopt new technology without proper clinical evaluation unless it is part of a trial.
9) Thou shall not fail to see the images yourself in assessing the patient before you.
10) Thou shall not fail to assess the potential for harm before embarking on a surgical procedure. If you would not do it to your family, your neighbour or friends, you will not do it to the patient who is in your clinic.

I put these out for discussion.  Other offerings please.

 

Jonathan M. Glass @jonathanmglass1

The Urology Centre, Guy’s Hospital, London, UK.   

[email protected]

 

Article of the Week: Central obesity is predictive of persistent storage LUTS after surgery for BPE

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Mauro Gacci discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Central obesity is predictive of persistent storage LUTS after surgery for Benign Prostatic Enlargement: results of a multicenter prospective study

Mauro Gacci, Arcangelo Sebastianelli, Matteo Salvi, Cosimo De Nunzio*, Andrea
Tubaro*, Linda Vignozzi, Giovanni Corona, Kevin T. McVary§, Steven A. Kaplan¶, Mario Maggi, Marco Carini and Sergio Serni

 

Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, *Department of Urology, SantAndrea Hospital, University La Sapienza, Rome, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Florence Endocrinology Unit, Medical Department, Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy, §Department of Urology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springeld, IL , and Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA

 

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OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the impact of components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on urinary outcomes after surgery for severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), as central obesity can be associated with the development of BPE and with the worsening of LUTS.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

A multicentre prospective study was conducted including 378 consecutive men surgically treated for large BPE with simple open prostatectomy (OP) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), between January 2012 and October 2013. LUTS were measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), immediately before surgery and at 6–12 months postoperatively. MetS was defined according the USA National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III.

RESULTS

The improvement of total and storage IPSS postoperatively was related to diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference (WC). A WC of >102 cm was associated with a higher risk of an incomplete recovery of both total IPSS (odds ratio [OR] 0.343, P = 0.001) and storage IPSS (OR 0.208, P < 0.001), as compared with a WC of <102 cm. The main limitations were: (i) population selected from a tertiary centre, (ii) Use exclusively of IPSS questionnaire, and (iii) No inclusion of further data.

CONCLUSIONS

Increased WC is associated with persistent postoperative urinary symptoms after surgical treatment of BPE. Obese men have a higher risk of persistent storage LUTS after TURP or OP.

 

Editorial: Exercise, diet and weight loss before therapy for LUTS/BPH?

In recent decades we have had access to an increasing body of evidence evoking a strong relationship between metabolic syndrome and the development of LUTS/BPH. This relationship suggests that metabolic syndrome might be responsible not only for putting patients at higher risk of developing LUTS/BPH but also for influencing the response and outcome of therapy. In a study in the present issue of BJUI [1] it has been observed that patients with a greater waist circumference, a sign of metabolic syndrome, are at a higher risk of experiencing persistent LUTS after either TURP or open prostatectomy for BPH. Likewise, in a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, a strong relationship between metabolic syndrome and prostatic enlargement was observed, underlining the exacerbating role of this syndrome in inducing the development of benign prostate enlargement as obese, dyslipidaemic and aged men have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome being a determinant factor of their prostate enlargement [2].

Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of clinical findings characterizing patients affected by a combination of abdominal obesity, elevated serum triglyceride levels, lowered HDL cholesterol levels, increased blood pressure or a high level of plasma glucose. It has also been considered an important risk factor for the eventual development of a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes, coronary vascular disease, fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease and hyperuricaemia [3]. Furthermore metabolic syndrome has been recently associated with an increased risk of clinical progression of LUTS/BPH in men with moderate to severe LUTS, reinforcing this syndrome as a factor for progression in addition to IPSS score, prostate volume, PSA, maximum urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine volume [4]. Several studies have recently shown that patients with LUTS/BPH and metabolic syndrome have a higher prostate volume than those without, and express a worse response to pharmacological therapy, suggesting the need to consider this at the time of selecting patients with LUTS/BPH for drug therapy [5, 6]. Check these leptitox reviews for harmless and natural weight loss treatment.

Several factors in the development of metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, including hyperinsulinaemia and autonomic hyperactivity, increased adiposity, ischaemia and hypoxia, chronic proinflamatory state and abnormal androgen levels. These factors are probably inter-related. A lack of exercise, together with obesity, may lead to insulin resistance, exerting a detrimental effect on lipid ratios decreasing blood levels of HDL cholesterol and increasing blood levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. These undesirable levels of cholesterol may lead to deposits of atheromatous plaques in artery walls, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, hyperinsulinaemia may lead to sodium retention, causing hypertension.

The implications for clinical practice are that, if metabolic syndrome is related to the development of BPH/LUTS, lifestyle interventions including weight loss (you can check resurge reviews and find how this supplement heal you losing weight), a healthy diet, and physical activity would have a positive effect in both symptom relief and disease progression. As a consequence we should develop management strategies to address both the symptoms and the underlying processes, not only because men with LUTS/BPH and metabolic syndrome respond worse than those without metabolic syndrome, but also because lifestyle change, a healthy diet and exercise might be enough to achieve symptom improvement and decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, prevent most obesity related conditions just by reading these meticore reviews.

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David Castro-Diaz
Department of Urology, University Hospital of the Canary Islands, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
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