Tag Archive for: NICE

Posts

Article of the Week: NICE Guidance ‐ Complicated UTIs: ceftolozane/tazobactam

Every Week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

NICE Guidance ‐ Complicated urinary tract infections: ceftolozane/tazobactam

Introduction and Current Guidance

Urinary tract infection is a non‐specific term that refers to infection anywhere in the urinary tract, from the urethra to the bladder and the ureters to the kidneys. According to the European Association of Urology Guidelines on urological infections (https://uroweb.org/guideline/urological-infections/?type=archive), complicated urinary tract infections are associated with certain conditions, such as structural or functional abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, or the presence of underlying disease in the lower or upper urinary tract, which increases the risk of persistent or relapsing infection. Factors associated with complicated urinary tract infections include:

  • indwelling urinary catheters
  • urinary obstruction (such as stones or tumour)
  • anatomical abnormalities
  • peri‐ and post‐operative urinary tract infection, including renal transplantation.

Pyelonephritis is infection of the upper urinary tract and can occur in 1 or both kidneys. Acute pyelonephritis may be caused by bacteria ascending from the lower urinary tract or spreading via the bloodstream to the kidney. It is considered to be uncomplicated if it is caused by a typical pathogen in an immunocompetent person with a normal urinary tract anatomy and kidney function. As for urinary tract infections generally, acute pyelonephritis is considered to be complicated in people with increased susceptibility, for example: children or older people; people with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract or people who are immunocompromised, such that the infection is more likely to be severe. However, most episodes are uncomplicated and are cured with no residual renal damage. Complicated urinary tract infections are a frequent cause of hospital admissions and a common healthcare associated complication. The pathogens most commonly encountered in complicated urinary tract infections are the gram‐negative bacteria Escherichia coli, other common Enterobacteriaceae (for example, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. or Citrobacter spp.) and Pseudomonas spp. Successful treatment has become increasingly more challenging because the majority of pathogens responsible for healthcare associated complicated urinary tract infections, including catheter‐related infections, are now commonly resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents (European public assessment report [https://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/003772/human_med_001917.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124]).

The English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance (ESPAUR) report (2015) (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-surveillance-programme-antimicrobial-utilisation-and-resistance-espaur-report) found that, overall, antibiotic resistant infections continue to increase. Notably, the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections increased by 15.6% and 20.8% respectively from 2010 to 2014. Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by E. coli (recorded in more than half of all the mandatory surveillance reports for E. coli bacteraemia when foci of infection are reported). The data indicate that 97% of E. coli isolates for urinary tract infection from GP practices, other community sources (such as care homes and outpatient clinics) and acute trusts were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. Resistance to trimethoprim was seen in over a third (35–37%) of isolates and resistance to amoxicillin was seen in over 50% of isolates, in all 3 settings. It is unclear if these data include cases of complicated urinary tract infections. Also, specialists involved in the production of this evidence summary noted that the results could be prone to bias because samples may have been be submitted from a population with a higher likelihood of antimicrobial resistance caused by, for example, failed treatments, recurrent infection or repeated courses of antibiotics.

Risk factors for resistance should be taken into consideration before prescribing antibiotics for urinary tract infection according to Public Health England guidance for primary care on managing common infections (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/managing-common-infections-guidance-for-primary-care).

As well as some other groups, Public Health England advises performing culture and sensitivity testing in people with a higher risk of recurrent urinary tract infection (such as those aged over 65 years or with urinary catheters), and people with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract or suspected pyelonephritis.

The management of suspected community‐acquired bacterial urinary tract infection in adults aged 16 years and over is covered in the NICE quality standard on urinary tract infection in adults (https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs90). This includes women who are pregnant, people with indwelling catheters and people with other diseases or medical conditions such as diabetes. The guidance was developed to contribute to a reduction in emergency admissions for acute conditions that should not usually require hospital admission, and improvements in health‐related quality of life. It does not make any recommendations around antibiotic treatment of complicated urinary tract infection, but includes 7 statements that describe high‐quality care for adults with urinary tract infection.

This evidence summary outlines the best available evidence for a new antimicrobial that is licensed for complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis, ceftolozane/tazobactam. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was developed to address antimicrobial resistance in serious infections caused by gram‐negative pathogens.

 

Article of the Week: NICE Guidance. Sepsis – recognition, diagnosis and early management

Every Week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

If you only have time to read one article this month, it should be this one.

Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management

 

Overview
This guideline covers the recognition, diagnosis and early management of sepsis for all populations. The guideline
committee identied that the key issues to be included were: recognition and early assessment, diagnostic and prognostic value of blood markers for sepsis, initial treatment, escalating care, iden tifying the source of infection, early monitoring, information and support for patients and carers, and training and education.
Who is it For?
People with sepsis, their families and carers.
Healthcare professionals working in primary, secondary and tertiary care. Recommendations
People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in
your care [https://www.nice.org.uk/about/nice-communities/public-involvement/your-care].Making decisions  using NICE guidelines [https://www.nice.org.uk/about/what-we-do/our-programmes/nice-guidance/nice-guidelines/using-NICE-guidelines-to-make-decisionsexplains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off-label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

 

More Information
You can also see this guideline in the NICE pathway on sepsis [https://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/sepsis].
To nd out what NICE has said on topics related to this guideline, see our web page on infections [https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/conditions-and-diseases/infections]See also the guideline committees discussion and the evidence reviews (in the full guideline [https://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/NG51/evidence]), and information about how the guideline was developed [https://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/NG51/documents], including details of the committee. Recommendations for Research The guideline committee has made the following recommendations for research.

 

Read the full article

© NICE (2017) Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management

Read more articles of the week

 

Article of the Month: NICE Guidance – Routine preoperative tests for elective surgery

Every Month the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

NICE Guidance – Routine preoperative tests for elective surgery

 

Read the full article

Overview

This guideline covers routine preoperative tests for people aged over 16 who are having elective surgery. It aims to reduce unnecessary testing by advising which tests to offer people before minor, intermediate and major or complex surgery, taking into account specific comorbidities (cardiovascular, renal and respiratory conditions and diabetes and obesity). It does not cover pregnant women or people having cardiothoracic procedures or neurosurgery.

Who is it for?

  • Healthcare professionals
  • People having elective surgery, their families and carers

This guideline updates and replaces NICE guideline CG3 (published June 2003).

Recommendations

People have the right to be involved in discussions and make informed decisions about their care, as described in your care [https://www.nice.org.uk/about/nice-communities/public-involvement/your-care].

We expect you to take our guidance into account. But you should always base decisions on the person you are working with.

Making decisions using NICE guidelines [https://www.nice.org.uk/about/what-we-do/our-programmes/nice-guidance/nice-guidelines/using-NICE-guidelines-to-make-decisions] explains how we use words to show the strength (or certainty) of our recommendations, and has information about prescribing medicines (including off-label use), professional guidelines, standards and laws (including on consent and mental capacity), and safeguarding.

Guidance on consent for young people aged 16–17 is available from the reference guide to consent for examination or treatment [https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/reference-guide-to-consent-for-examination-or-treatment-second-edition] (Department of Health).

The tests covered by this guideline are:

  • chest X-ray
  • echocardiography (resting)
  • electrocardiography (ECG; resting)
  • full blood count (haemoglobin, white blood cell count and platelet count)
  • glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) testing
  • haemostasis tests
  • kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, electrolytes, creatinine and sometimes urea levels)
  • lung function tests (spirometry, including peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume) and arterial blood gas analysis
  • polysomnography
  • pregnancy testing
  • sickle cell disease/trait tests
  • urine tests.

The recommendations were developed in relation to the following comorbidities:

  • cardiovascular
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • renal
  • respiratory.

 

Read more articles of the week

Editorial: Viewpoint – Rationing and Surgical Care

Limitation in the provision of surgical care has many causes. In a nationalised healthcare system, this often reflects lack of funds, leading to rationing of clinical services. Rationing itself takes a number of forms. Deliberate exclusion of specific operations (usually elective) or specific patient groups (smokers, obese) are the most common examples, but strategic extension of waiting times by the removal of ‘target’ times can also be used as a rationing tool.

Many surgeons are dismayed by these decisions. They feel that the surgical patient is unfairly targeted as the clinical and cost-effectiveness of many planned surgical interventions have been well characterised. Surgeon and institutional outcomes are freely available – unlike the situation in many non-surgical specialties, so how can it be fair to pick on the surgical patient?

The idea that non-urgent elective surgery falls into neat categories where delay has no adverse consequences for the patient mystifies many surgeons. Whilst all would advocate a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss and smoking cessation, decisions to withhold surgery from the obese or those who smoke is rarely evidence-based. Rationing based on such prejudice soon becomes illogical. Why should the obese cancer patient receive an operation when the obese incontinent patient cannot?

In the long term, the absence of a substantial volume of ‘routine’ surgery damages training as exposure to such procedures is limited. Surgery has become the soft target for rationing clinical services. Surgeons should make their patients aware of how this process will affect them. Healthcare planners need to hear a public voice as well as that of the clinicians.

Just occasionally, an apparent limitation can be beneficial. In this issue of the BJUI, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) provides clear guidance on preoperative testing. This is based on sensible recommendations such as: avoiding routine urine dipstick testing, routine chest X-rays, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in non-diabetic patients. All surgeons irrespective of their specialty would benefit from paying close attention to these important guidelines [1].

Derek Alderson

President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; Emeritus Professor of Surgery, University of Birmingham; Editor-in-chief of BJS Open.

Read the full article

Reference

1 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Routine preoperative tests for elective surgery: © NICE (2016) Routine preoperative tests for elective surgery. BJU Int 2018; 121: 12–6

 

Article of the Month: Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management of bladder cancer

Every month the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. There is also a podcast created by a Urology Resident.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Read the full article

Introduction

Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. It is 3–4 times more common in men than in women. In the UK in 2011, it was the fourth most common cancer in men and the thirteenth most common in women. There were 10,399 people diagnosed with bladder cancer and 5081 deaths from bladder cancer in 2011. The majority of cases occur in people aged over 60. The main risk factor for bladder cancer is increasing age, but smoking and exposure to some industrial chemicals also increase risk.

Bladder cancer is usually identified on the basis of visible blood in the urine or blood found on urine testing, but emergency admission is a common way for bladder cancer to present, and is often associated with a poor prognosis.

Most bladder cancers (75–80%) do not involve the muscle wall of the bladder and are usually treated by telescopic removal of the cancer (transurethral resection of bladder tumour [TURBT]). This is often followed by instillation of chemotherapy or vaccine-based therapy into the bladder, with prolonged telescopic checking of the bladder (cystoscopy) as follow-up. Some people in this group who are at higher risk are treated with major surgery to remove the bladder (cystectomy). People with cancer in or through the bladder muscle wall may be treated with intent to cure using chemotherapy, cystectomy or radiotherapy, and those who have cancer too advanced to cure may have radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

The involvement of the urogenital tract and the nature of the treatments give this cancer a strong psychological impact, in addition to the physical impact of the disease and its treatments, which is often profound. The prevalence of the condition and the nature of its management make bladder cancer one of the most expensive cancers for the NHS.

There is thought to be considerable variation across the NHS in the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer and the provision of care to people who have it. There is evidence that the patient experience for people with bladder cancer is worse than that for people with other cancers.

This guideline covers adults (18 years and older) referred from primary care with suspected bladder cancer and those with newly diagnosed or recurrent bladder (urothelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma or small-cell carcinoma) or urethral cancer. There was insufficient high-quality evidence on which to make specific recommendations for non-urothelial bladder cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma or small-cell carcinoma).

It does not cover people aged under 18 or adults with bladder sarcoma, urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract, or secondary bladder or urethral cancer (for example, bowel or cervix cancer spreading into the bladder).

Medicines

The guideline assumes that prescribers will use a medicine’s summary of product characteristics to inform decisions made with individual patients.

This guideline recommends some medicines for indications for which they do not have a UK marketing authorisation at the date of publication, if there is good evidence to support that use. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. The patient (or those with authority to give consent on their behalf) should provide informed consent, which should be documented. See the General Medical Council’s Prescribing guidance: prescribing unlicensed medicines for further information. Where recommendations have been made for the use of medicines outside their licensed indications (‘off-label use’), these medicines are marked with a footnote in the recommendations.

Read more articles of the week

Editorial: NICE guidance and the BJUI

As the year comes to an end, one cannot help but reflect on the successes of 2017. The impact factor of the BJUI has gone up to 4.439. Our infographics have introduced an entirely different level of interaction with our readers, some of whom are hard pressed for time. We have simply relied on the age old idiom – ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’. And we have credited our reviewers for giving up their valuable time, through Publons and the entirely new Four Seasons, where we will recognise the best reviewers each quarter through BJUI blogs.

Figure 1. Tower Bridge, London. ©John W. Davis 2017.

But perhaps the greatest accomplishment this year has been the publication of National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance for the very first time in the BJUI. Guidelines in general are now regarded as perhaps the highest level of evidence, which is obvious from the many hundred citations attracted by guidelines from the EAU and AUA. An absolute classic is the American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Screening Guideline from 2003, which was updated in 2015. In keeping with modern times and shorter attention spans, JAMAenhanced the guideline with an amazing infographic of a digital hand and pen drawing across a white paper! Whilst admiring such stunning quality, the team at the BJUI became acutely aware of our major weakness of being an international journal – we do not have society guidelines to publish. Until now…

NICE guidelines are based not just on the highest level of evidence; every effort is made to eliminate bias as far as possible. Every committee has at least two lay members. The processes and methods are based on internationally accepted criteria of quality, as detailed in the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrumen ns are clear and unambiguous, making them easier to implement and understand.

A unique feature of NICE Guidance is not just ‘clinical effectiveness’ but engagement with economists to make clear statements on ‘cost effectiveness’. It is no wonder that although NICE is based mainly in London, these guidelines are now popular worldwide and not just for the NHS.

We have earlier published NICE Guidance on the GreenLight XPS laser for BPH avoiding high risk patients such as those with risk of bleeding, prostate volume >100 mL, and urinary retention [1]. This technology would be cost effective if used on a day case basis.

NICE have also weighed the evidence for enzalutamide in hormone-relapsed prostate cancer before chemotherapy [2], in patients with mild symptoms, provided it is made available by the manufacturer on the agreed discounted price. Although expensive, it is regarded as an effective treatment amongst the new emerging therapies to prolong the lives of patients with prostate cancer.

In this issue of the BJUI, we feature the NICE Guidance on diagnosis and management of bladder cancer [3]. Not only is smoking cessation important in these patients, but perhaps somewhat controversially, NICE recommend discharge to primary care of patients with low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with no recurrence within 12 months. They make a number of research recommendations on biomarkers that are increasingly becoming important with next generation sequencing but also patient satisfaction, which is what ultimately matters in this cancer that can adversely affect quality of life of those who suffer with it.

Wishing you all Greetings of the season!

Prokar Dasgupta

Editor in Chief, BJUI

References

1 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia: ©NICE (2016) GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int2017; 119: 82330

 

2 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Enzalutamide for treating metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer before chemotherapy is indicated: ©NICE (2016) Enzalutamide for treating metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer before chemotherapy is indicated. BJU Int 2017; 120: 16884

 

3 National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management of bladder cancer: ©NICE (2015) Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. BJU Int2017; 120: 7556

 

Article of the Month: GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia

Every Month the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia

Read the full article

This National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance is the current, unaltered NICE guidance at time of publication. BJUI publishes selected NICE guidance relevant to urologists to extend their distribution and promote best practice.

 

 Recommendations

  • 1.1
    The case for adopting GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia is supported in non-high-risk patients. GreenLight XPS is at least as effective in these patients as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), but can more often be done as a day-case procedure, following appropriate service redesign.

 

  • 1.2

    There is currently insufficient high-quality, comparative evidence to support the routine adoption of GreenLight XPS in high-risk patients, that is those who:

    • have an increased risk of bleeding or
    • have prostates larger than 100 ml or
    • have urinary retention.

    NICE recommends that specialists collaborate in collecting and publishing data on the comparative effectiveness of GreenLight XPS for high-risk patients to supplement the currently limited published evidence.

 

  • 1.3
    Cost modelling indicates that in non-high-risk patients, cost savings with GreenLight XPS compared with TURP are determined by the proportion of procedures done as day cases. Assuming a day-case procedure rate of 36%, and that the GreenLight XPS console is provided at no cost to the hospital (based on a contracted commitment to fibre usage), the estimated cost saving is £60 per patient. NICE’s resource impact report estimates that the annual cost saving for the NHS in England is around £2.3 million. In a plausible scenario of 70% of treatments being done as day cases, the cost saving may be up to £3.2 million.

 

  • 1.4
    NICE recommends that hospitals adopting GreenLight XPS plan for service redesign to ensure that day-case treatment can be delivered appropriately.

 

Read more articles of the week

 

Editorial: Celebrating BAUS and NICE Guidance

On behalf of the BAUS Council, I am delighted to write this editorial looking forward to the 73rd annual meeting of the BAUS, which will be held in Glasgow from 26 to 28 June. In response to feedback we had from delegates following BAUS 2016 and the successful European Association of Urology meeting in London this March, we have changed the format and duration of the meeting, ensuring that it has a distinct feel, reflecting the best of British Urology.

With Brexit looming and the precarious state of NHS finances, the continuing challenge for all of us working in the NHS is to deliver high-quality care within available resources, while embracing the latest evidence informing clinical practice. This month’s BJUI sees the first publication of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on urological topics – ‘MTG29 GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia’ [1]. NICE has a fantastic track record in publishing highly regarded evidence-based syntheses across the breath of medicine and this guidance will stimulate the development and adoption of Greenlight laser for treating BPH as a day case procedure in the UK.

Assessing and critiquing new evidence are key elements of the annual BAUS meeting and this year is no exception. In all, 535 abstracts were submitted of which 157 will be presented. Whilst much of our clinical practice is of a high quality, analysis of the work done by the ‘Getting it right first time’ (GIRFT) team has shown a wide variation in practice for many common conditions in Urology. Simon Harrison, who leads the GIRFT team, will be giving an update on the progress of the work in a session looking at how standards can be applied in the real world at a session on Tuesday 27 June, entitled ‘Urology standards and the real world’.

On Monday 26 June, Academic Urology, Andrology and Genito-Urethral Surgery (AGUS), and Female, Neurological and Urodynamic Urology (FNUU) will be holding their annual meetings. State of the art lectures include Professor Trinity Bivalacqua speaking on ‘Molecular genetics and the prospect for future treatment strategies in Urology’. The AGUS section will focus on the genital emergencies consultation and the future of andrology in the UK, shedding light on specialist commissioning and training in the speciality. Highlights of the FNUU section meeting will include an update on meshes and tapes and the medicolegal consequences of adverse outcomes.

British urology has played a pivotal role in our understanding of the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Reflecting this, a point-counterpoint debate will take place on Tuesday 27 June, with Caroline Moore and Paul Cathcart debating the necessity for prostate biopsy in patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 1and 2 lesions seen on MRI, drawing on evidence from the recent PROstate MRI Imaging Study (PROMIS) trial. On Wednesday 28, Noel Clarke will report on the latest news from the Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) study, which to date has recruited >9000 patients. New evidence from the study is likely to herald a change in the care of our patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

In addition to state of the art papers, we are delighted to have a number of key opinion leaders attending the meeting. Reflecting the public’s high expectations and pressures on clinicians, Professor David Speigelhalter, Winton Professor for the Public Understanding of Risk at the University of Cambridge, will speak on the nature of risk and uncertainty in clinical practice. The BJUI Guest lecture will be delivered by David Prior (Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the House of Lords). With the recent publication of The Long-term Sustainability of the NHS and Adult Social Care report [2], he is uniquely placed to give a perspective on the future direction of the NHS.

For the first time at our meeting there will be a session entitled ‘When things go wrong’. This session will focus on the impact of adverse events and burnout on Urologists, which promises to be insightful and thought provoking. With plenty of science, innovations in urological care and some politics, BAUS 2107 promises to be a fascinating meeting. I look forward to seeing you there.

Kieran OFlynn

 

President of the BAUS

 

Read the full article

How to Cite

O’Flynn, K. (2017), Celebrating BAUS and NICE Guidance. BJU International, 119: 815. doi: 10.1111/bju.13899

 

References

1 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.MTG29 GreenLight XPS for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia.BJU Int 2017;119:82330

 

2 House of Lords.The Long-term Sustainability of the NHS and Adult Social Care, 5 April 2017. Available at: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldnhssus/151/151.pdf. Accessed 24 April 2017

 

© 2021 BJU International. All Rights Reserved.