Tag Archive for: Article of the Week

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Video: Time to increase use of multimodal therapy in bladder cancer

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer does not increase risk of perioperative morbidity

David C. Johnson*, Matthew E. Nielsen*†‡, Jonathan Matthews*, Michael E. Woods*, Eric M. Wallen*, Raj S. Pruthi*, Matthew I. Milowsky*†§ and Angela B. Smith*

*Department of Urology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cancer Outcomes Research Group, Multidisciplinary Genitourinary Oncology, Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, and §Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a predictor of postoperative complications, length of stay (LOS), or operating time after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was performed to identify patients receiving NAC before RC from 2005 to 2011. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine whether NAC was associated with 30-day perioperative outcomes, e.g. complications, LOS, and operating time.

RESULTS

Of the 878 patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer in our study, 78 (8.9%) received NAC. Excluding those patients who were ineligible for NAC due to renal insufficiency, 78/642 (12.1%) received NAC. In all, 457 of the 878 patients (52.1%) undergoing RC had at least one complication ≤30 days of RC, including 43 of 78 patients (55.1%) who received NAC and 414 of 800 patients (51.8%) who did not (P = 0.58). On multivariable logistic regression, NAC was not a predictor of complications (P = 0.87), re-operation (P = 0.16), wound infection (P = 0.32), or wound dehiscence (P = 0.32). Using multiple linear regression, NAC was not a predictor of increased operating time (P = 0.24), and patients undergoing NAC had a decreased LOS (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Our study is the first large multi-institutional analysis specifically comparing complications after RC with and without NAC. Using a nationally validated, prospectively maintained database specifically designed to measure perioperative outcomes, we found no increase in perioperative complications or surgical morbidity with NAC. Considering these findings and the well-established overall survival benefit over surgery alone, efforts are needed to improve the uptake of NAC.

Article of the Week: Retzius-sparing RALP: combining the best of retropubic and perineal approaches

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video demonstrating the Retzius-sparing approach to robot-assisted prostatectomy.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: combining the best of retropubic and perineal approaches

Sey Kiat Lim*, Kwang Hyun Kim*, Tae-Young Shin*, Woong Kyu Han*, Byung Ha Chung*, Sung Joon Hong*, Young Deuk Choi* and Koon Ho Rha*

*Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea and Department of Urology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore

OBJECTIVE

To compare the early peri-operative, oncological and continence outcomes of Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) with those of conventional RALP.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data from 50 patients who underwent Retzius-sparing RALP and who had at least 6 months of follow-up were prospectively collected and compared with a database of patients who underwent conventional RALP. Propensity-score matching was performed using seven preoperative variables, and postoperative variables were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

A total of 581 patients who had undergone RALP were evaluated in the present study. Although preoperative characteristics were different before propensity-score matching, these differences were resolved after matching. There were no significant differences in mean length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, intra- and postoperative complication rates, pathological stage of disease, Gleason scores, tumour volumes and positive surgical margins between the conventional RALP and Retzius-sparing RALP groups. Console time was shorter for Retzius-sparing RALP. Recovery of early continence (defined as 0 pads used) at 4 weeks after RALP was significantly better in the Retzius-sparing RALP group than in the conventional RALP group.

CONCLUSIONS

The present results suggest that Retzius-sparing RALP, although technically more demanding, was as feasible and effective as conventional RALP, and also led to a shorter operating time and faster recovery of early continence. Retzius-sparing RALP was also reproducible and achievable in all cases.

Editorial: Pushing the robot-assisted prostatectomy envelope – to the safety limits? Better outcomes

The present article by Lim et al. [1] describing the new technique for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is provocative. It really does highlight the dramatic improvement in outcomes of prostate cancer surgery for men over the last 25 years. What used to be a 3-week hospital stay with a 50% incontinence rate and a 100% impotence rate [2, 3] now becomes a day case with a high likelihood of excellent urinary control early after surgery and a fair potential for potency preservation. Twenty-five years ago men who underwent radical prostatectomy were truly brave patients.

Lim et al. report a single series by the senior author of 50 cases performed using the so-called Retzius preservation technique. Their cohort of 50 patients treated this way was compared with a retrospective cohort of the surgeon’s patients. The patients had lower-risk disease and patients who had seminal vesicle invasion or extracapsular extension noted preoperatively, presumably on MRI, were excluded from the series. The authors report a shorter operating time and an earlier return to urinary continence in the first 6 months after surgery.

I guess where surgeons are now taking us is to an attempt to remove the prostate from the hammock of neurovascular, muscular and fascial tissue surrounding it, without disturbing the anatomy [4]. If this can be achieved then radical prostatectomy with minimal morbidity is a very compelling choice for the primary treatment of prostate cancer.

The authors’ hypothesis is that preservation of the levator fascia, puboprostatic ligaments and detrusor apron will fix the bladder somewhat like a sling would, with support at the bladder neck during increased intra-abdominal pressure.

It should be noted, however, that the present paper represents a single series of patients selected after a long learning curve by a very experienced surgeon. These excellent outcomes may simply reflect the fact that the surgeon is now extremely technically capable. It is contentious to assume that a propensity score matching of a retrospective cohort would represent a true comparator to contemporary outcomes. These excellent outcomes probably reflect technical improvements achievable with more risky and innovative surgery – after many cases. The authors should be congratulated on pushing the envelope to achieve even better outcomes for patients undergoing this operation, but the exclusion of patients with high-risk disease is probably the major negative aspect of their report. It has become increasingly obvious that patients with high-risk disease are those who benefit most from radical prostatectomy surgery. Surgery for patients with very-low-risk disease (Gleason 6) is probably unnecessary. Nevertheless, with continued insights such as those provided by these surgeons, we may be able to increase the range of patients to whom Retzius-sparing surgery in higher risk cohorts can be offered.

Anthony J. Costello
Department of Urology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

References

  1. Lim SK, Kim KH, Shin T-Y et al. Retzius-sparing Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy – combining the best of retropubic and perineal approaches. BJU Int 2014; 114: 236–244
  2. Wein AJ, Kavousi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA. Campbell-Walsh Urology, 10th edn. Saint Louis, MO: Saunders, 2011: 5688
  3. Catalona WJ, Carvalhal GF, Mager DE, Smith DS. Potency, continence and complication rates in 1,870 consecutive radical retropubic prostatectomies. J Urol 1999; 162: 433–438
  4. Costello AJ, Brooks M, Cole OJ. Anatomical studies of the neurovascular bundle and cavernosal nerves. BJU Int 2004; 94: 1071–1076

Video: Retzius-sparing approach to RALP

Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: combining the best of retropubic and perineal approaches

Sey Kiat Lim*, Kwang Hyun Kim*, Tae-Young Shin*, Woong Kyu Han*, Byung Ha Chung*, Sung Joon Hong*, Young Deuk Choi* and Koon Ho Rha*

*Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea and Department of Urology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore

OBJECTIVE

To compare the early peri-operative, oncological and continence outcomes of Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) with those of conventional RALP.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data from 50 patients who underwent Retzius-sparing RALP and who had at least 6 months of follow-up were prospectively collected and compared with a database of patients who underwent conventional RALP. Propensity-score matching was performed using seven preoperative variables, and postoperative variables were compared between the groups.

RESULTS

A total of 581 patients who had undergone RALP were evaluated in the present study. Although preoperative characteristics were different before propensity-score matching, these differences were resolved after matching. There were no significant differences in mean length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, intra- and postoperative complication rates, pathological stage of disease, Gleason scores, tumour volumes and positive surgical margins between the conventional RALP and Retzius-sparing RALP groups. Console time was shorter for Retzius-sparing RALP. Recovery of early continence (defined as 0 pads used) at 4 weeks after RALP was significantly better in the Retzius-sparing RALP group than in the conventional RALP group.

CONCLUSIONS

The present results suggest that Retzius-sparing RALP, although technically more demanding, was as feasible and effective as conventional RALP, and also led to a shorter operating time and faster recovery of early continence. Retzius-sparing RALP was also reproducible and achievable in all cases.

Article of the week: The changing face of urinary continence surgery in England

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from John Withington and Arun Sahai discussing their paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

The changing face of urinary continence surgery in England: a perspective from the Hospital Episode Statistics database

John Withington, Sadaf Hirji and Arun Sahai

Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Hospitals’Trust, King’s College London, London, UK

OBJECTIVE

To quantify changes in surgical practice in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and post-prostatectomy stress incontinence (PPI) in England, using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We used public domain information from the HES database, an administrative dataset recording all hospital admissions and procedures in England, to find evidence of change in the use of various surgical procedures for urinary incontinence from 2000 to 2012.

RESULTS

For the treatment of SUI, a general increase in the use of synthetic mid-urethral tapes, such as tension-free vaginal tape (TVTO) and transobturator tape (TOT), was observed, while there was a significant decrease in colposuspension procedures over the same period. The number of procedures to remove TVT and TOT has also increased in recent years. In the treatment of overactive bladder and UUI, there has been a significant increase in the use of botulinum toxin A and neuromodulation in recent years. This coincided with a steady decline in the recorded use of clam ileocystoplasty. A steady increase was observed in the insertion of artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) devices in men, related to PPI.

CONCLUSIONS

Mid-urethral synthetic tapes now represent the mainstream treatment of SUI in women, but tape-related complications have led to an increase in procedures to remove these devices. The uptake of botulinum toxin A and sacral neuromodulation has led to fewer clam ileocystoplasty procedures being performed. The steady increase in insertions of AUSs in men is unsurprising and reflects the widespread uptake of radical prostatectomy in recent years. There are limitations to results sourced from the HES database, with potential inaccuracy of coding; however, these data support the trends observed by experts in this field.

Editorial: Routine data expose a need for change

Withington et al. [1], in their analysis of changes in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery in England, have tapped in to a rich seam of information which, as well as holding the promise of much more, also highlights a need for changed thinking about services and training. They have produced an excellent review of the use of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data to establish a pattern of changing surgical practice for the treatment of urinary incontinence in England. They rightly point out the great potential of using patient-specific linked data to explore other relationships between predictors and outcome. Widespread use of powerful data of this sort could, theoretically at least, help to answer research questions, as well as to plan service design and resource allocation.

The use of routine data by the NHS is a hot topic in the UK at present. An England wide database, Care.data, has been developed that plans to link anonymised routine data, automatically drawn from community care, hospital statistics, public health and social care databases. Whilst debate rages about the confidentiality issues, and conspiracy theories abound, some strident voices promote a vision of how such a databank will be used to address big health questions and to identify relationships between social conditions, healthcare and outcomes, which have not previously been possible. Similar projects exist in Wales and Scotland enjoying the acronyms of SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) and SPIRE (The Scottish Primary Care Information Resource), and Northern Ireland also has plans in progress. These systems do differ subtly in detail but not in aspiration [2].

The authors’ findings confirm that lesser invasive procedures now dominate the treatment of SUI in women, and that the use of Botulinum toxin A for treating refractory urgency incontinence, despite the absence until recently of a license for its use, has become commonplace. Whilst demand for SUI surgery may have levelled off, following something of a surge in recent years, the demand for Botulinum toxin A treatment inevitably increases as patients become locked in to long-term retreatment programmes. With these numbers it should be possible for a hospital serving a population of, say, 250 000 to perform at least 40–50 of each procedure per annum. This is probably enough to sustain a routine service, consistent with recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), which described how surgeons should seek to maintain expertise through, amongst other things, having an adequate caseload [3].

Sacral neuromodulation (SNS), artificial sphincter, colposuspension, tape removal and augmentation cystoplasty are procedures that occupy the complex end of a range of surgical options for incontinence. These are patients who have often failed other treatments, defy easy categorisation, and are performed in relatively small numbers. SNS has not been adopted in the UK, as widely as might have been anticipated following NICE guidance in 2006, which strongly recommended its implementation – perhaps because of local difficulties in commissioning a procedure with such high capital costs. The low figures for all these procedures strengthen the argument to focus complex work into expert centres, where adequate numbers can be maintained and the next generation of specialists can be effectively trained.

Those who commission or plan service delivery, and those who design training programmes, need to take heed of this evidence. The nature of female and urodynamic urology has changed over recent years, now being characterised by 95% very routine procedures and 5% complex difficult cases. But if we centralise the 5% of complex work and leave those working in more peripheral hospitals able to offer only mid-urethral slings and Botulinum toxin A, then we have to reconsider the basis of specialist training. There is no point training a person to high levels of competence in complex procedures that they will never use in senior practice. The UK Continence Society is currently developing a set of minimum standards for service delivery and training, which will take this information into account.

The evidence presented by Withington et al. [1] is specific to England and it remains unclear how much these trends can be extrapolated to the UK nations with devolved healthcare, or indeed to other countries. However, Withington et al. [1] must be congratulated for highlighting both the power of routine data in clinical research, and specifically for identifying the dramatic changes in surgical practice of incontinence, which require an adaptive response from both the NHS and our specialist organisations.

Malcolm Lucas
Department of Urology, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK

References

  1. Withington J, Hirji S, Sahai A. The changing face of urinary continence surgery in England: a perspective from the hospital episode statistics database. BJU Int 2014; 114: 268–277
  2. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. September 2013. Urinary incontinence: the management of urinary incontinence in women. Clinical guidelines CG171. Available at: https://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG171. Accessed April 2014

 

Video: Urinary continence surgery in England

The changing face of urinary continence surgery in England: a perspective from the Hospital Episode Statistics database

John Withington, Sadaf Hirji and Arun Sahai

Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Hospitals’Trust, King’s College London, London, UK

OBJECTIVE

To quantify changes in surgical practice in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and post-prostatectomy stress incontinence (PPI) in England, using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We used public domain information from the HES database, an administrative dataset recording all hospital admissions and procedures in England, to find evidence of change in the use of various surgical procedures for urinary incontinence from 2000 to 2012.

RESULTS

For the treatment of SUI, a general increase in the use of synthetic mid-urethral tapes, such as tension-free vaginal tape (TVTO) and transobturator tape (TOT), was observed, while there was a significant decrease in colposuspension procedures over the same period. The number of procedures to remove TVT and TOT has also increased in recent years. In the treatment of overactive bladder and UUI, there has been a significant increase in the use of botulinum toxin A and neuromodulation in recent years. This coincided with a steady decline in the recorded use of clam ileocystoplasty. A steady increase was observed in the insertion of artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) devices in men, related to PPI.

CONCLUSIONS

Mid-urethral synthetic tapes now represent the mainstream treatment of SUI in women, but tape-related complications have led to an increase in procedures to remove these devices. The uptake of botulinum toxin A and sacral neuromodulation has led to fewer clam ileocystoplasty procedures being performed. The steady increase in insertions of AUSs in men is unsurprising and reflects the widespread uptake of radical prostatectomy in recent years. There are limitations to results sourced from the HES database, with potential inaccuracy of coding; however, these data support the trends observed by experts in this field.

Article of the week: Nephron-sparing management vs radical nephroureterectomy

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by prominent members of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Jay Simhan dicsussing his paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Nephron-sparing management vs radical nephroureterectomy for low- or moderate-grade, low-stage upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Jay Simhan, Marc C. Smaldone, Brian L. Egleston*, Daniel Canter, Steven N. Sterious, Anthony T. Corcoran, Serge Ginzburg, Robert G. Uzzo and Alexander Kutikov

Division of Urologic Oncology, Departments of Surgical Oncology, *Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA and Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

OBJECTIVE

• To compare overall and cancer-specific outcomes between patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) managed with either radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) or nephron-sparing measures (NSM) using a large population-based dataset.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, patients diagnosed with low- or moderate-grade, localised non-invasive UTUC were stratified into two groups: those treated with RNU or NSM (observation, endoscopic ablation, or segmental ureterectomy).

• Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates were determined using cumulative incidence estimators. Adjusting for clinical and pathological characteristics, the associations between surgical type, all-cause mortality and CSM were tested using Cox regressions and Fine and Gray regressions, respectively.

RESULTS

• Of 1227 patients [mean (sd) age 70.2 (11.00) years, 63.2% male] meeting inclusion criteria, 907 (73.9%) and 320 (26.1%) patients underwent RNU and NSM for low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC from 1992 to 2008.

• Patients undergoing NSM were older (mean age 71.6 vs 69.7 years, P < 0.01) with a greater proportion of well-differentiated tumours (26.3% vs 18.0%, P = 0.001).

• While there were differences in OCM between the groups (P < 0.01), CSM trends were equivalent. After adjustment, RNU treatment was associated with improved non-cancer cause survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, confidence interval [CI] 0.64–0.94) while no association with CSM was demonstrable (HR 0.89, CI 0.63–1.26).

CONCLUSIONS

• Patients with low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC managed through NSM are older and are more likely to die of other causes, but they have similar CSM rates to those patients managed with RNU.

• These data may be useful when counselling patients with UTUC with significant competing comorbidities.

Editorial: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: do we really need to burn down the house?

In this issue, Simhan et al. [1] use the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to compare outcomes of nephron-sparing and radical extirpative therapy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Their study sheds some well-needed light on a difficult clinical dilemma.

A diagnosis of low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC is akin to finding a spot of suspicious green mould on your attic drywall. The scale and potential danger of the problem may not be immediately apparent and both patient and urologist must make tough choices with incomplete information. Spot treat the problem and preserve nephrons via endoscopic or segmental resection or burn down the house with radical nephroureterectomy to minimise recurrence and progression risk? With only relatively small datasets for guidance and the uncertainty of endoscopic biopsy, many urologists have a low threshold to proceed with radical therapy, perhaps unnecessarily.

Simhan et al. [1] identified 1227 patients in the SEER dataset with low- or moderate-grade, localised, non-invasive UTUC who were treated either with nephron-sparing procedures (endoscopic resection or segmental ureterectomy) or nephroureterectomy between 1992 and 2008. For this cohort, radical therapy with nephroureterectomy imparted no advantage in cancer-specific survival. Patients undergoing nephron sparing were slightly older and did experience higher non-cancer specific mortality. This may reflect an underlying bias to offer nephron sparing to older patients with a greater burden of comorbidities and shorter life expectancy. These results corroborate another large SEER study from 2010, which documented no difference in cancer-specific mortality when comparing segmental resection with nephroureterectomy for T1–T4 N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the ureter [2].

Population-based tumour registry studies are complementary to institutional series and are particularly valuable for rare tumours like UTUC. However, they have their limitations and these are outlined clearly in the Simhan et al. [1] article. Most notable are the lack of linked comorbidity information and the inability to separate segmental resection from endoscopic management in the nephron-sparing group. We should avoid the temptation to broaden indications for endoscopic resection to all patients with low-grade, low-stage UTUC of the renal pelvis and calyces. After all, the authors present no data on: (i) local recurrence and reoperation rates, (ii) progression to radical nephroureterectomy or (iii) correlation between endoscopic biopsy results and the ultimate pathology from nephroureterectomy specimens.

Over the past decade, there has been a progressive movement toward nephron-sparing approaches for treatment of T1 RCC, even in the context of a normal contralateral kidney. This transition has been fuelled by data showing the substantial negative impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on cardiovascular events and overall mortality [3]. Broader application of this philosophy to the treatment of low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC would be a natural next step. This is particularly true given the advantage of maximising nephrons should disease progression necessitate platinum-based chemotherapy.

However, endoscopic resection of UTUC carries a much higher burden of local recurrence (20–85%) [4], than does partial nephrectomy for RCC. Patients with UTUC often require multiple serial endoscopic resections and years of complicated and costly surveillance. More recent data also suggests that surgically induced CKD may not carry the same risk of progression and mortality as medical CKD [5]. Perhaps burning down the house is not as potentially destructive as we once thought?

With these caveats firmly in mind, the Simhan et al. [1] study does support a growing appreciation that nephron-sparing approaches to low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC do not worsen cancer-specific mortality. Although these findings are encouraging, I agree with the authors that patient selection for nephron sparing should continue to be informed by clinical judgment and adherence to published treatment guidelines [6].

Richard E. Link
Associate Professor of Urology, Director, Division of Endourology and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

References

  1. Jeldres C, Lughezzani G, Sun M et al. Segmental ureterectomy can safely be performed in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol 2010; 183: 1324–1329
  2. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1296–1305
  3. Bagley DH, Grasso M 3rd. Ureteroscopic laser treatment of upper urinary tract neoplasms. World J Urol 2010; 28: 143–149
  4. Lane BR, Campbell SC, Demirjian S, Fergany AF. Surgically induced chronic kidney disease may be associated with a lower risk of progression and mortality than medical chronic kidney disease. J Urol 2013; 189: 1649–1655
  5. Roupret M, Zigeuner R, Palou J et al. European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas: 2011 update. Eur Urol 2011; 59: 584–594

 

Video: Nephron sparing vs radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC

Nephron-sparing management vs radical nephroureterectomy for low- or moderate-grade, low-stage upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Jay Simhan, Marc C. Smaldone, Brian L. Egleston*, Daniel Canter, Steven N. Sterious, Anthony T. Corcoran, Serge Ginzburg, Robert G. Uzzo and Alexander Kutikov

Division of Urologic Oncology, Departments of Surgical Oncology, *Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA and Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

OBJECTIVE

• To compare overall and cancer-specific outcomes between patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) managed with either radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) or nephron-sparing measures (NSM) using a large population-based dataset.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, patients diagnosed with low- or moderate-grade, localised non-invasive UTUC were stratified into two groups: those treated with RNU or NSM (observation, endoscopic ablation, or segmental ureterectomy).

• Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates were determined using cumulative incidence estimators. Adjusting for clinical and pathological characteristics, the associations between surgical type, all-cause mortality and CSM were tested using Cox regressions and Fine and Gray regressions, respectively.

RESULTS

• Of 1227 patients [mean (sd) age 70.2 (11.00) years, 63.2% male] meeting inclusion criteria, 907 (73.9%) and 320 (26.1%) patients underwent RNU and NSM for low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC from 1992 to 2008.

• Patients undergoing NSM were older (mean age 71.6 vs 69.7 years, P < 0.01) with a greater proportion of well-differentiated tumours (26.3% vs 18.0%, P = 0.001).

• While there were differences in OCM between the groups (P < 0.01), CSM trends were equivalent. After adjustment, RNU treatment was associated with improved non-cancer cause survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, confidence interval [CI] 0.64–0.94) while no association with CSM was demonstrable (HR 0.89, CI 0.63–1.26).

CONCLUSIONS

• Patients with low- or moderate-grade, low-stage UTUC managed through NSM are older and are more likely to die of other causes, but they have similar CSM rates to those patients managed with RNU.

• These data may be useful when counselling patients with UTUC with significant competing comorbidities.

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