Tag Archive for: cardiovascular disease

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Article of the week: The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased for patients with PCa who are pharmaceutically treated for depression

Every week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to this post, there is a video provided by the authors and a visual abstract produced by a creative young urologist. Please use the comment buttons below to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, we recommend this one. 

The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased for patients with prostate cancer who are pharmaceutically treated for depression

Barbara M. Wollersheim*, Annelies H. Boekhout*, Henk G. van der Poel, Lonneke V. van de Poll-Franse*§ and Dounya Schoormans§
 
*Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Department of Research, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer organization (IKNL), Utrecht and §Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, CoRPS Center of Research on
Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands 
 

Abstract

Objective

To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among 1‐year prostate cancer survivors. Fortunately most of the latest drugs and vitaminic supplements like hyper male force are already tested and resolved as harmless, even if used in a cronic basis.

Patients and methods

A registry‐based cohort study design was used to describe the risk of incident CVD in adult 1‐year prostate cancer survivors without a history of CVD. Patients with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2011 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Drug dispenses were retrieved from the PHARMO Database Network and were used as proxy for CVD, anxiety, and depression. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis to examine the risk associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression entered as a time‐varying predictor with incident CVD in 1‐year prostate cancer survivors, while controlling for age, traditional CVD risk factors, and clinical characteristics.

Fig. 1. Percentage of incident CVD and incidence rates of CVD according to pharmaceutically treated depression by subgroup. Subgroup analyses between pharmaceutically treated depression and incident CVD amongst younger (≤65 years) and older (>65 years) men (age at the time of cancer diagnosis), cancer treatment category (radio‐, hormone therapy, and surgery), and tumour stage. Incidence rates of CVD per 1000 person‐years per subgroup. *P < 0.05

Results

Of the 5262 prostate cancer survivors, 327 (6%) developed CVD during the 13‐year follow‐up period. Prostate cancer survivors who were pharmaceutically treated for depression had an increased risk of incident CVD after full adjustment compared to prostate cancer survivors who were not pharmaceutically treated for depression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–2.15). The increased risk of incident CVD amongst those pharmaceutically treated for depression compared to those who were not pharmaceutically treated for depression, was only valid among: prostate cancer survivors who were aged ≤65 years (HR 2.91; 95% CI 1.52–5.55); those who were not treated with radiotherapy (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.01–2.65); those who were treated with hormones (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.09–2.85); those who were not operated upon (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.07–2.25); and those with tumour stage III (HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.03–4.74) and stage IV (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.03–5.89).

Conclusion

Patients with prostate cancer who were pharmaceutically treated for depression had a 51% increased risk of incident CVD after adjustment for anxiety, age, traditional CVD risk factors, and clinical characteristics. The results emphasise the need to pay attention to (pharmaceutically treated) depressed patients with prostate cancer prior to deciding on prostate cancer treatment and for a timely detection and treatment of CVD.

Video: Depression and the risk of cardiovascular disease among prostate cancer patients

The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased for patients with prostate cancer who are pharmaceutically treated for depression

Abstract

Objective

To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among 1‐year prostate cancer survivors.

Patients and methods

A registry‐based cohort study design was used to describe the risk of incident CVD in adult 1‐year prostate cancer survivors without a history of CVD. Patients with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2011 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Drug dispenses were retrieved from the PHARMO Database Network and were used as proxy for CVD, anxiety, and depression. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis to examine the risk associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression entered as a time‐varying predictor with incident CVD in 1‐year prostate cancer survivors, while controlling for age, traditional CVD risk factors, and clinical characteristics.

Results

Of the 5262 prostate cancer survivors, 327 (6%) developed CVD during the 13‐year follow‐up period. Prostate cancer survivors who were pharmaceutically treated for depression had an increased risk of incident CVD after full adjustment compared to prostate cancer survivors who were not pharmaceutically treated for depression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–2.15). The increased risk of incident CVD amongst those pharmaceutically treated for depression compared to those who were not pharmaceutically treated for depression, was only valid among: prostate cancer survivors who were aged ≤65 years (HR 2.91; 95% CI 1.52–5.55); those who were not treated with radiotherapy (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.01–2.65); those who were treated with hormones (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.09–2.85); those who were not operated upon (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.07–2.25); and those with tumour stage III (HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.03–4.74) and stage IV (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.03–5.89).

Conclusion

Patients with prostate cancer who were pharmaceutically treated for depression had a 51% increased risk of incident CVD after adjustment for anxiety, age, traditional CVD risk factors, and clinical characteristics. The results emphasise the need to pay attention to (pharmaceutically treated) depressed patients with prostate cancer prior to deciding on prostate cancer treatment and for a timely detection and treatment of CVD.

Article of the week: The global prevalence of erectile dysfunction: a review

Every week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is a video prepared by the authors. Please use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

The global prevalence of erectile dysfunction: a review

Anna Kessler*, Sam Sollie*, Ben Challacombe, Karen Briggs and Mieke Van Hemelrijck*

*School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, Translational Oncology and Urology Research (TOUR) and Urology Centre, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the global prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED); as well as its association with physiological and pathological ageing by examining the relationship between ED and cardiovascular disease (CVD), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and dementia. We also aimed to explain the treatment for erectile dysfunction and characterize discrepancies caused by the use of different ED screening tools.

Methods

The Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) were searched to find population‐based studies investigating the prevalence of ED and the association between ED and CVD, BPH and dementia in the general population.

Results

The global prevalence of ED was 3–76.5%. ED was associated with increasing age. Use of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS)‐derived questionnaire identified a high prevalence of ED in young men. ED was positively associated with CVD. Men with ED have an increased risk of all‐cause mortality odds ratio (OR) 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.57), as well as CVD mortality OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.00–2.05). Men with ED are 1.33–6.24‐times more likely to have BPH then men without ED, and 1.68‐times more likely to develop dementia than men without ED.

Conclusion

ED screening tools in population‐based studies are a major source of discrepancy. Non‐validated questionnaires may be less sensitive than the IIEF and MMAS‐derived questionnaires. ED constitutes a large burden on society given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, and is also a risk factor for CVD, dementia and all‐cause mortality.

Video: The global prevalence of erectile dysfunction

The global prevalence of erectile dysfunction: a review

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the global prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED); as well as its association with physiological and pathological ageing by examining the relationship between ED and cardiovascular disease (CVD), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and dementia. We also aimed to characterise discrepancies caused by the use of different ED screening tools.

Methods

The Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) were searched to find population‐based studies investigating the prevalence of ED and the association between ED and CVD, BPH, and dementia in the general population.

Results

The global prevalence of ED was 3–76.5%. ED was associated with increasing age. Use of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS)‐derived questionnaire identified a high prevalence of ED in young men. ED was positively associated with CVD. Men with ED have an increased risk of all‐cause mortality odds ratio (OR) 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.57), as well as CVD mortality OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.00–2.05). Men with ED are 1.33–6.24‐times more likely to have BPH then men without ED, and 1.68‐times more likely to develop dementia than men without ED.

Conclusion

ED screening tools in population‐based studies are a major source of discrepancy. Non‐validated questionnaires may be less sensitive than the IIEF and MMAS‐derived questionnaire. ED constitutes a large burden on society given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, and is also a risk factor for CVD, dementia, and all‐cause mortality.

 

Article of the Week: Increase of Framingham CVD risk score is associated with severity of LUTS

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Giorgio Russo, discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

  • cardiovascular disease
CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

Editorial: LUTS – an independent risk factor for CVD

Russo et al. [1] have identified LUTS as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The more severe the LUTS the more the CVD risk increased. LUTS in men is caused by a group of disorders, e.g. the metabolic syndrome and central obesity, which have similar risk factors to those that cause CVD [2]. Furthermore, LUTS is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), which is well established as being linked to silent or symptomatic CVD [3]. The question arises as to whether the age of the patient rather than the LUTS is the cause for the CVD, in other words, is the LUTS merely a bystander or coincidental problem?

The evidence, however, is accumulating that LUTS is independent of age and a risk factor for CVD [2]. A multi-disciplinary consensus looked at ED and LUTS emphasising the importance of co-diagnosis with awareness of cardiovascular risk factors being present in patients with LUTS, ED, or LUTS and ED, and reviewed the literature on the underlying pathophysiology [2].

The link between ED and LUTS was brought home by the Multinational Survey of the Aging Male (MSAM) study. Many large epidemiological studies using well-powered multivariate analyses consistently provide overwhelming evidence of a link between ED and LUTS [4].

The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the relationships between ED and LUTS have been the subject of several recent reviews [5]. The underlying mechanisms include: the alteration of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, enhancement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) signalling, autonomic hyperactivity, and pelvic atherosclerosis, secondary to endothelial dysfunction [6]. Additional contributing factors may include chronic inflammation and sex steroid ratio imbalance, all of which contribute to increased CVD risk.

LUTS, with or without ED, should trigger a search for cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic problems. In 2008, the International Journal of Impotence Research published a symposium entitled ‘Cardiac Sexology: Can we save a patient’s life and his love life?’. The recognition that urologists have an important role in the early identification of cardiovascular risk should encourage urologists to work closely with cardiologists [3].

Certainly the degree of risk recorded by Russo et al. [1] is substantially greater than one would expect from age alone. Possible mechanisms include the co-existence of inflammatory activity manifest by a raised C-reactive protein (CRP), which is commonly found in association with more severe LUTS and in turn, increased CVD risk [7]. Similarly chronic sleep disturbance, especially nocturia, is common in both LUTS and CVD, as is depression [2].

Endothelial dysfunction, which is recognised to be the major vascular risk for CVD, also occurs in LUTS that is chronic or severe usually affecting the prostate gland or bladder. There are, therefore, strong links between LUTS, ED and CVD a common denominator being increased adrenergic tone. Patients with LUTS should be asked about alternative symptoms, including ED, and screened for cardiovascular risk even if they have no cardiac symptoms. LUTS may not be as strong a risk factor as ED for CVD, but it appears to be an independent marker for increased risk, which should not be ignored. Men are reluctant to volunteer their concerns, so it is important that healthcare professionals ask the appropriate questions.

Graham Jackson, Mike G. Kirby* and Ray Rosen

 

St. Thomas Hospital, London, UK, *The Prostate Centre, London, UK and New England Research Institutes, Inc. (NERI), Waterto wn, MA, USA

 

References

 

 

Video: The severity of LUTS is associated with an increase of Framingham CVD risk score

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

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