Tag Archive for: salvage RPLND

Posts

Residents’ Podcast: sRPLND+PLND for ‘node-only’ recurrent PCa

Jesse Ory, Kyle Lehmann and Jeff Himmelman

Department of Urology, Dalhousie University
Halifax, NS, Canada

Abstract

Objectives

To describe the technique of robot-assisted high-extended salvage retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenectomy (sRPLND+PLND) for ‘node-only’ recurrent prostate cancer.

Patients and Methods

In all, 10 patients underwent robot-assisted sRPLND+PLND (09/2015–03/2016) for ‘node-only’ recurrent prostate cancer, as identified by 11C-acetate positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Our anatomical template extends from bilateral renal artery/vein cranially up to Cloquet’s node caudally, completely excising lymphatic-fatty tissue from aorto-caval and iliac vascular trees; RPLND precedes PLND. Meticulous node-mapping assessed nodes at four prospectively assigned anatomical zones.

Results

The median operative time was 4.8 h, estimated blood loss 100 mL and hospital stay 1 day. No patient had an intraoperative complication, open conversion or blood transfusion. Three patients had spontaneously resolving Clavien–Dindo grade II postoperative complications. The mean (range) number of nodes excised per patient was 83 (41–132) and mean (range) number of positive nodes per patient was 23 (0–109). Seven patients (70%) had positive nodes on final pathology. Node-positive rates per anatomical level I, II, III and IV were 28%, 32%, 33% and 33%, respectively. In patients with positive nodes, the median PSA level had decreased by 83% at the 2-month follow-up.

Conclusion

The initial series of robot-assisted sRPLND+PLND is presented, wherein we duplicate open surgery with superior nodal counts and decreased morbidity. Robot-assisted technical details for an anatomical LND template up to the renal vessels are presented. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess oncological outcomes.

BJUI Podcasts now available on iTunes, subscribe here https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/bju-international/id1309570262

Article of the Week: sRPLND+PLND for ‘node-only’ recurrent PCa

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Robotic salvage retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph node dissection for ‘node-only’ recurrent prostate cancer: technique and initial series

Andre Abreu*, Carlos Fay*, Daniel Park*, David Quinn*, Tanya Dorff*,John Carpten*, Peter Kuhn*, Parkash Gill*, Fabio Almeida* and Inderbir Gill*

 

*University of Southern California (USC) Institute of Urology, Catherine & Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA, and Pontical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil

 

Abstract

Objectives

To describe the technique of robot-assisted high-extended salvage retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenectomy (sRPLND+PLND) for ‘node-only’ recurrent prostate cancer.

Patients and Methods

In all, 10 patients underwent robot-assisted sRPLND+PLND (09/2015–03/2016) for ‘node-only’ recurrent prostate cancer, as identified by 11C-acetate positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Our anatomical template extends from bilateral renal artery/vein cranially up to Cloquet’s node caudally, completely excising lymphatic-fatty tissue from aorto-caval and iliac vascular trees; RPLND precedes PLND. Meticulous node-mapping assessed nodes at four prospectively assigned anatomical zones.

Results

The median operative time was 4.8 h, estimated blood loss 100 mL and hospital stay 1 day. No patient had an intraoperative complication, open conversion or blood transfusion. Three patients had spontaneously resolving Clavien–Dindo grade II postoperative complications. The mean (range) number of nodes excised per patient was 83 (41–132) and mean (range) number of positive nodes per patient was 23 (0–109). Seven patients (70%) had positive nodes on final pathology. Node-positive rates per anatomical level I, II, III and IV were 28%, 32%, 33% and 33%, respectively. In patients with positive nodes, the median PSA level had decreased by 83% at the 2-month follow-up.

Conclusion

The initial series of robot-assisted sRPLND+PLND is presented, wherein we duplicate open surgery with superior nodal counts and decreased morbidity. Robot-assisted technical details for an anatomical LND template up to the renal vessels are presented. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess oncological outcomes.

Read more articles of the week

 

Editorial: sLND – if yes, Robotics?

The manuscript in this issue of the BJUI by de Castro Abreu et al. [1] reports the results of the first series of patients to undergo robotic-assisted salvage lymph node dissection (sLND) for nodal recurrence of prostate cancer. Despite the absence of a high level of evidence, sLND has been gaining attention in recent years. Indeed, several series have shown promising results of such an approach, especially in terms of PSA response to surgery and delay in clinical recurrence [2-4]. However, sLND is a complex surgery and is not devoid of complications, as in up to 13.8% of patients Clavien–Dindo ≥IIIa complications occur [5]. When analysing the results of the current manuscript [1], it is impressive to read that the mean number of LNs removed was 83, ranging from 41 to 132, which is significantly higher than the reported figures of open sLND series. Moreover, despite the long median operative time (4.8 h), complication rates and postoperative course were excellent as compared to previously published series, although a direct comparison between the open and robot-assisted approach should be only addressed in prospective studies. The authors should be congratulated on the superb results obtained during the learning curve of such complex surgery, but some issues need to be discussed.

First, it is difficult to understand whether such results apply only to very expert surgeons. In other words, is it possible to translate such surgery to less experienced robotic surgeons? Second, is it necessary to extend the LND to a similar extent in all cases? Previous reports have shown that patients with retroperitoneal involvement may not benefit from sLND as much as their counterparts with only pelvic involvement [2]. The authors [1] show no significant impact of such an extended approach on complications and postoperative course, but the invasiveness of such an extended approach needs to be justified in each case. Third, the introduction of new tracer methods, such as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/CT, with higher specificity for prostate cancer may reduce the need for such extended templates, without compromising the oncological results [6]. Fourth, is the robotic approach feasible and safe in patients previously submitted to radical prostatectomy independently from the approach (open vs laparoscopic/robotic), from the extent of the previous LND, as well as from the previous administration of adjuvant/salvage radiotherapy? All these answers will need to be addressed in future studies on subgroups of patients undergoing sLND. Most importantly, until a high level of evidence is available, sLND should still be considered experimental and should be performed by highly experienced surgeons.

Nazareno Suardi and Francesco Montorsi
Department of Urology, Urological Research Institute, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

 

References
© 2022 BJU International. All Rights Reserved.