Tag Archive for: #VisualAbstract


Article of the week: Cognitive training for technical and non‐technical skills in robotic surgery: a randomised controlled trial

Every week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. These are intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. There is also a video produced by the authors.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Cognitive training for technical and non‐technical skills in robotic surgery: a randomised controlled trial

Nicholas Raison* , Kamran Ahmed*, Takashige Abe*, Oliver Brunckhorst*, Giacomo Novara, Nicolo Buf§, Craig McIlhenny, Henk van der Poel**, Mieke van Hemelrijck††, Andrea Gavazzi‡‡ and Prokar Dasgupta*


*Division of Transplantation Immunology and Mucosal Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Kings College London, UK, ††Division of Cancer Studies, Kings College London, UK, Department of Urology, Forth Valley Royal Hospital, Larbert, UK, Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, Department of Urology, University of Padua, Padua, §Department of Urology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Centre, Rozzano, Milan, ‡‡Department of Urology, Azienda USL Toscana Centro, Florence, Italy, and **Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Visual Abstract created by Rebecca Fisher @beckybeckyfish



To investigate the effectiveness of motor imagery (MI) for technical skill and non‐technical skill (NTS) training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS).

Subjects and Methods

A single‐blind, parallel‐group randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Vattikuti Institute of Robotic Surgery, King’s College London. Novice surgeons were recruited by open invitation in 2015. After basic robotic skills training, participants underwent simple randomisation to either MI training or standard training. All participants completed a robotic urethrovesical anastomosis task within a simulated operating room. In addition to the technical task, participants were required to manage three scripted NTS scenarios. Assessment was performed by five blinded expert surgeons and a NTS expert using validated tools for evaluating technical skills [Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS)] and NTS [Non‐Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS)]. Quality of MI was assessed using a revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ).


In all, 33 participants underwent MI training and 29 underwent standard training. Interrater reliability was high, Krippendorff’s α = 0.85. After MI training, the mean (sd) GEARS score was significantly higher than after standard training, at 13.1 (3.25) vs 11.4 (2.97) (P = 0.03). There was no difference in mean NOTSS scores, at 25.8 vs 26.4 (P = 0.77). MI training was successful with significantly higher imagery scores than standard training (mean MIQ score 5.1 vs 4.5, P = 0.04).


Motor imagery is an effective training tool for improving technical skill in MIS even in novice participants. No beneficial effect for NTS was found.


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