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This image is taken from Dhawiwal et al (BJUI 2019). It schematically shows mechanism of action for immunotherapy for urothelial carcinoma.
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is found on the tumour cell. Various Immune checkpoint inhibitors act on these (anti-PD-L1) e.g. atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein4 (CTLA-4) are expressed on T-cells. Examples of anti-CTLA-4 agents are ipilimumab and tremelimumab.
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