Tag Archive for: metabolic syndrome

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Article of the Month: The Metabolic Syndrome & the Prostate

Every Month, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Association between metabolic syndrome and intravesical prostatic protrusion in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms (MIPS Study)

Giorgio I. Russo*, Federica Regis*, Pietro Spatafora, Jacopo Frizzi, Daniele Urzı*, Sebastiano Cimino*, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Mauro Gacci† and Giuseppe Morgia*

 

*Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy, and Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

 

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and morphological features of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), including total prostate volume (TPV), transitional zone volume (TZV) and intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP).

Patients and Methods

Between January 2015 and January 2017, 224 consecutive men aged >50 years presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BPE were recruited to this multicentre cross‐sectional study. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were performed to verify factors associated with IPP, TZV and TPV.

Results

Patients with MetS were observed to have a significant increase in IPP (P < 0.01), TPV (P < 0.01) and TZV (P = 0.02). On linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and metabolic factors of MetS, we found that high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was negatively associated with IPP (r = −0.17), TPV (r = −0.19) and TZV (r = −0.17), while hypertension was positively associated with IPP (r = 0.16), TPV (r = 0.19) and TZV (r = 0.16). On multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and factors of MetS, hypertension (categorical; odds ratio [OR] 2.95), HDL cholesterol (OR 0.94) and triglycerides (OR 1.01) were independent predictors of TPV ≥ 40 mL. We also found that HDL cholesterol (OR 0.86), hypertension (OR 2.0) and waist circumference (OR 1.09) were significantly associated with TZV ≥ 20 mL. On age‐adjusted logistic regression analysis, MetS was significantly associated with IPP ≥ 10 mm (OR 34.0; P < 0.01), TZV ≥ 20 mL (OR 4.40; P < 0.01) and TPV ≥ 40 mL (OR 5.89; P = 0.03).

Conclusion

We found an association between MetS and BPE, demonstrating a relationship with IPP.

Editorial: The metabolic syndrome and the prostate

The metabolic syndrome has been known for ~80 years 1 and is important to both urologists and their patients because of a two‐fold increase in the relative risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease‐related events and a five‐fold increase for developing Type 2 diabetes as compared to people without the syndrome. Abdominal obesity is well known to be an important underlying risk factor for precipitating the syndrome and obesity is also known to markedly increase the risk for developing BPH and its symptoms 2. There are other associations that may be relevant here including an association between a lack of physical activity and the severity of LUTS 3, and a close correlation between the degree of prostatic and systemic inflammation and the degree of LUTS 4. Systemic inflammation is implicated in the metabolic syndrome with pro‐inflammatory cytokines due to the adipose tissue load, such as C‐reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, being involved in causing the insulin resistance, which is a diagnostic feature of this condition 5.

The current study connects the metabolic syndrome with an anatomical feature of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), namely intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) 6. Each of the diagnostic features of metabolic syndrome was examined separately such as reduced high‐density lipoprotein (HDL)‐cholesterol and raised triglycerides. Hypertriglyceridaemia is due to an overproduction of very‐low‐density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the liver and a reduction of lipoprotein lipase in peripheral tissues, and reflects the insulin resistant condition responsible for the metabolic syndrome 5. In this study, high triglyceride levels were an independent predictor of a total prostatic volume (TPV) of >40 mL. The other major lipoprotein abnormality in metabolic syndrome is a reduction in HDL‐cholesterol levels, which is due to both a decrease in the cholesterol content of this lipoprotein and an increase in its clearance from the circulation. In this study by Russo et al. 6, HDL levels were negatively associated with IPP and both total and transition zone volumes, and they postulate that these associations may be mediated by the effect of dyslipidaemia on prostate cells and prostatic inflammation.

Hypertension is another diagnostic feature that the authors address. There is increased renal sodium reabsorption, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and vasoconstriction related to an increase in fatty acids in this syndrome. Hypertension, defined as systolic ≥135 mmHg, diastolic ≥85 mmHg or on current treatment, was positively associated with IPP and also associated with a TPV of ≥40 mL and a transitional zone volume of ≥20 mL in this study 6. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were not as strongly related to the features of BPH but ultimately are key drivers of the metabolic syndrome and management of these features is a cornerstone of the management of the whole condition.

Lifestyle and dietary interventions can address many of the aspects of this insulin‐resistant state with medical management of the metabolic features being used to supplement these. The same interventions are also successful in decreasing LUTS 3, which should not be surprising given the above. The longstanding aphorism that ‘heart healthy is prostate healthy’ appears to not only apply to the treatment of prostate cancer but also to that of BPH and urologists remain in an important position to identify men at significant risk.

Peter J. Gilling
Urology, Bay of Plenty District Health Board Clinical SchoolTauranga, New Zealand

 

References
  • Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J, IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definitionLancet 2005366: 1059–62

 

  • Parsons JK, Sarma AV, McVary K, Wei JT. Obesity and benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical connections, emerging etiological paradigms and future directionsJ Urol 2013189 (Suppl.): S102–6.

 

  • Fowke JH, Phillips S, Koyama T et al. Association between physical activity, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and prostate volumeBJU Int 2013111: 122–8

 

  • Burris MB, Cathro HP, Kowalik CG et al. Lower urinary tract symptom improvement after radical prostatectomy correlates with degree of prostatic inflammationUrology 201483: 186–90

 

  • Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndromeLancet 2005365: 1415–28

 

  • Russo GI, Regis F, Spatafora P et al. Association between metabolic syndrome and intravesical prostatic protrusion in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms (MIPS Study)BJU Int 2018121: 799–804.

 

Article of the Week: Effect of MetS on serum PSA levels is concealed by enlarged prostate

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video discussing the paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Actual lowering effect of metabolic syndrome on serum prostate-specific antigen levels is partly concealed by enlarged prostate: results from a large-scale population-based study

Sicong Zhao*, Ming Xia*, Jianchun Tang† and Yong Yan*

 

*Department of Urology, and Department of Cardiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

 

Read the full article

Abstract

Objectives

To clarify the lowering effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a Chinese screened population.

Subjects and Methods

A total of 45 540 ostensibly healthy men aged 55–69 years who underwent routine health check-ups at Beijing Shijitan Hospital between 2008 and 2015 were included in the study. All the men underwent detailed clinical evaluations. PSA mass density was calculated (serum PSA level × plasma volume ÷ prostate volume) for simultaneously adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. According to the modified National Cholesterol Education Programme–Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria, patients were dichotomized by the presence of MetS, and differences in PSA density and PSA mass density were compared between groups. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of MetS on serum PSA levels.

Results

When larger prostate volume in men with MetS was adjusted for, both PSA density and PSA mass density in men with MetS were significantly lower than in men without MetS, and the estimated difference in mean serum PSA level between men with and without MetS was greater than that before adjusting for prostate volume. In the multivariate regression model, the presence of MetS was independently associated with an 11.3% decline in serum PSA levels compared with the absence of MetS. In addition, increasing number of positive MetS components was significantly and linearly associated with decline in serum PSA levels.

Conclusion

The actual lowering effect of MetS on serum PSA levels was partly concealed by the enlarged prostate in men with MetS, and the presence of MetS was independently associated with lower serum PSA levels. Urologists need to be aware of the effect of MetS on serum PSA levels and should discuss this subject with their patients.

Editorial: Anomalous observation with regard to PCa in cancer research

In science, reports showing data deviating from what is expected are called anomalous observations. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a promoter of cancer at almost all sites [1]; however, when it comes to prostate cancer (PCa), a series of reports have been published showing an inverse relationship between MetS and its aspects and incident PCa. This lack of coherence in cancer research seriously hampers efforts to fight cancer disorders. It is therefore crucial to find an explanation for this incoherence.

In the search for a reasonable explanation for this anomalous observation, a hypothesis has been formulated, based on the study by Häggström et al. [2], and stating that the PSA-driven diagnostic procedure in PCa, which creates low-stage incident PCa material, is the culprit. The PSA-driven diagnostic procedure introduces several bias mechanisms, which tend to protect men with MetS from being diagnosed with PCa. Thus, men with MetS and its aspects are under-represented in PCa populations generated by PSA-driven diagnostics, thereby creating a distorted incident PCa population. This hypothesis also predicts that high-stage PCa, as well as non-localized and lethal PCa, are not subject to these bias mechanisms, as a minor reduction in the PSA level is of no importance for the PCa diagnosis at these high PSA levels. Finally, the hypothesis predicts that the link between MetS and incident PCa is stage-dependent. A study testing this hypothesis is now in progress.

Several studies have reported that men with MetS had lower PSA levels compared with men without MetS. Zhao et al. [3] address this specific question in this issue of BJUI and confirm that the presence of MetS was independently associated with a lower PSA level and that the enlarged prostate gland, which is an aspect of MetS, partly concealed an even greater PSA level reduction [3]. The findings indicate that a bias mechanism inverses the link between MetS and incident PCa and support the above-mentioned hypothesis.

In short, the following bias mechanisms have been described. MetS is associated with greater body fat with increased aromatase activity, resulting in a reduced testosterone level, which, in turn, is related to a reduced PSA level, as the production of PSA is under androgen control. Another possible bias mechanism, leading to men with MetS being diagnosed less often with PCa, is that these men are more likely to be obese. It is well established that men with a higher BMI also have larger plasma volumes and therefore have greater haemodilution of the PSA production, resulting in a lower PSA level. This means that incident PCa is diagnosed less often in men with MetS, as their PSA level is lower. MetS is also associated with an enlarged prostate gland volume, which means that fewer incident PCas are diagnosed, given the same tumour volume and the same number of biopsies. Another bias mechanism is that a high proportion of men with high socio-economic status undergo PSA testing in the PSA era. It is well established that men with a high socio-economic status have a lower prevalence of MetS and therefore have higher PSA levels, as indicated by the present report in the BJUI [3], and an elevated risk of PCa. Thus, multiple bias mechanisms seem to conceal low-stage PCa in the PSA era.

If it could be confirmed that the negative relationship between MetS and incident PCa is a spurious observation as a result of bias mechanisms, this would open the door for the MetS hypothesis regarding the promotion of multiple cancer disorders. This door has previously been closed by findings in a series of reports of an inverse relationship between MetS and its aspects and incident prostate cancer. Furthermore, this could lead to increased efforts to fight the metabolic aberrations of MetS. It is now well established that MetS and its aspects could be reduced by changes in lifestyle, including physical activity and diet. The most convincing evidence of the effect of diet on MetS comes from studies involving decreased intake of carbohydrates and increased intake of unsaturated fats. Recently, leading authorities in nutrition, endocrinology and metabolism presented a critical review and concluded that carbohydrate restriction is the single most effective intervention to reduce all features of MetS [4]. Another review concluded that carbohydrate restriction is one of the few common interventions that target all features of MetS [5]. This conclusion has recently been confirmed in a meta-analysis by Mansoor et al. [6].

In conclusion, new knowledge challenges the anomalous observation of PCa showing a negative relationship between MetS and PCa. The credibility of the hypothesis that MetS is an important promoting factor for cancer at almost all sites is strengthened. MetS could be treated effectively with a low carbohydrate and high fat diet.

Jan Hammarsten, MD, PhD
Department of Urology, Institute of Clinical SciencesUniversity of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

 

Read the full article

 

References

 

1 Esposito K, Chiodini P, Colao AM et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer. Diabetes Care 2012; 35: 240211 

 

2Haggstrom C, Stocks T, Ulmert D et al. Prospective study on metabolic factors and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer 2012; 118: 6199206

 

3 Zhao S, Xia M, Tang J et al. The actual lowering effect of metabolic syndrome on serum prostate-specic antigen levels is partly concealed by enlarged prostate: results from large-scale population-based study. BJU Int 2017; 120: 4829

 

4 Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the rst approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 2015;31: 113

 

5 Accurso A, Bernstein RK, Dahlqvist A et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for critical appraisal. Nutrition & Metabolism 2008; 5: 9

 

6 Mansoor N, Vinknes UJ , Veierod MB et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Nutrition 2016; 115: 4667

 

Video: Effect of MetS on serum PSA levels is concealed by enlarged prostate

Actual lowering effect of metabolic syndrome on serum prostate-specific antigen levels is partly concealed by enlarged prostate: results from a large-scale population-based study

Sicong Zhao*, Ming Xia*, Jianchun Tang† and Yong Yan*

 

*Department of Urology, and Department of Cardiology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

 

Read the full article

Abstract

Objectives

To clarify the lowering effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a Chinese screened population.

Subjects and Methods

A total of 45 540 ostensibly healthy men aged 55–69 years who underwent routine health check-ups at Beijing Shijitan Hospital between 2008 and 2015 were included in the study. All the men underwent detailed clinical evaluations. PSA mass density was calculated (serum PSA level × plasma volume ÷ prostate volume) for simultaneously adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. According to the modified National Cholesterol Education Programme–Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria, patients were dichotomized by the presence of MetS, and differences in PSA density and PSA mass density were compared between groups. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of MetS on serum PSA levels.

Results

When larger prostate volume in men with MetS was adjusted for, both PSA density and PSA mass density in men with MetS were significantly lower than in men without MetS, and the estimated difference in mean serum PSA level between men with and without MetS was greater than that before adjusting for prostate volume. In the multivariate regression model, the presence of MetS was independently associated with an 11.3% decline in serum PSA levels compared with the absence of MetS. In addition, increasing number of positive MetS components was significantly and linearly associated with decline in serum PSA levels.

Conclusion

The actual lowering effect of MetS on serum PSA levels was partly concealed by the enlarged prostate in men with MetS, and the presence of MetS was independently associated with lower serum PSA levels. Urologists need to be aware of the effect of MetS on serum PSA levels and should discuss this subject with their patients.

Article of the Week: Increase of Framingham CVD risk score is associated with severity of LUTS

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr. Giorgio Russo, discussing his paper. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

  • cardiovascular disease
CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

Editorial: LUTS – an independent risk factor for CVD

Russo et al. [1] have identified LUTS as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The more severe the LUTS the more the CVD risk increased. LUTS in men is caused by a group of disorders, e.g. the metabolic syndrome and central obesity, which have similar risk factors to those that cause CVD [2]. Furthermore, LUTS is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), which is well established as being linked to silent or symptomatic CVD [3]. The question arises as to whether the age of the patient rather than the LUTS is the cause for the CVD, in other words, is the LUTS merely a bystander or coincidental problem?

The evidence, however, is accumulating that LUTS is independent of age and a risk factor for CVD [2]. A multi-disciplinary consensus looked at ED and LUTS emphasising the importance of co-diagnosis with awareness of cardiovascular risk factors being present in patients with LUTS, ED, or LUTS and ED, and reviewed the literature on the underlying pathophysiology [2].

The link between ED and LUTS was brought home by the Multinational Survey of the Aging Male (MSAM) study. Many large epidemiological studies using well-powered multivariate analyses consistently provide overwhelming evidence of a link between ED and LUTS [4].

The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the relationships between ED and LUTS have been the subject of several recent reviews [5]. The underlying mechanisms include: the alteration of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, enhancement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) signalling, autonomic hyperactivity, and pelvic atherosclerosis, secondary to endothelial dysfunction [6]. Additional contributing factors may include chronic inflammation and sex steroid ratio imbalance, all of which contribute to increased CVD risk.

LUTS, with or without ED, should trigger a search for cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic problems. In 2008, the International Journal of Impotence Research published a symposium entitled ‘Cardiac Sexology: Can we save a patient’s life and his love life?’. The recognition that urologists have an important role in the early identification of cardiovascular risk should encourage urologists to work closely with cardiologists [3].

Certainly the degree of risk recorded by Russo et al. [1] is substantially greater than one would expect from age alone. Possible mechanisms include the co-existence of inflammatory activity manifest by a raised C-reactive protein (CRP), which is commonly found in association with more severe LUTS and in turn, increased CVD risk [7]. Similarly chronic sleep disturbance, especially nocturia, is common in both LUTS and CVD, as is depression [2].

Endothelial dysfunction, which is recognised to be the major vascular risk for CVD, also occurs in LUTS that is chronic or severe usually affecting the prostate gland or bladder. There are, therefore, strong links between LUTS, ED and CVD a common denominator being increased adrenergic tone. Patients with LUTS should be asked about alternative symptoms, including ED, and screened for cardiovascular risk even if they have no cardiac symptoms. LUTS may not be as strong a risk factor as ED for CVD, but it appears to be an independent marker for increased risk, which should not be ignored. Men are reluctant to volunteer their concerns, so it is important that healthcare professionals ask the appropriate questions.

Read the full article
Graham Jackson, Mike G. Kirby* and Ray Rosen

 

St. Thomas Hospital, London, UK, *The Prostate Centre, London, UK and New England Research Institutes, Inc. (NERI), Waterto wn, MA, USA

 

References

 

 

Video: The severity of LUTS is associated with an increase of Framingham CVD risk score

Increase of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score is associated with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms

Giorgio I. Russo, Tommaso Castelli, Salvatore Privitera, Eugenia Fragala, Vincenzo Favilla, Giulio Reale, Daniele Urzı, Sandro La Vignera*, Rosita A. Condorelli*, Aldo E. Calogero*, Sebastiano Cimino and Giuseppe Morgia

 

Department of Urology, and *Department of Medical and Paediatric Sciences, Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

 

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessed by the Framingham CVD risk score in a cohort of patients without previous episodes of stroke and/or acute myocardial infarction.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From September 2010 to September 2014, 336 consecutive patients with BPH-related LUTS were prospectively enrolled. The general 10-year Framingham CVD risk score, expressed as percentage and assessing the risk of atherosclerotic CVD events, was calculated for each patient. Individuals with low risk had ≤10% CVD risk at 10 years, with intermediate risk 10–20% and with high risk ≥20%. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables for predicting a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% and moderate–severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥8), adjusted for confounding factors.

RESULTS

As category of Framingham CVD risk score increased, we observed higher IPSS (18.0 vs 18.50 vs 19.0; P < 0.05), high IPSS–voiding (6.0 vs 9.0 vs 9.5; P < 0.05) and worse sexual function. Prostate volume significantly increased in those with intermediate- vs low-risk scores (54.5 vs 44.1 mL; P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intermediate- [odds ratio (OR) 8.65; P < 0.01) and high-risk scores (OR 1.79; P < 0.05) were independently associated with moderate–severe LUTS. At age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, moderate–severe LUTS was independently associated with Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% (OR 5.91; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Our cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with LUTS–BPH showed an increase of more than five-fold of having a Framingham CVD risk score of ≥10% in men with moderate–severe LUTS.

Article of the Week: Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic enlargement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic enlargement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mauro Gacci, Giovanni Corona*, Linda Vignozzi†, Matteo Salvi, Sergio Serni, Cosimo De Nunzio‡, Andrea Tubaro‡, Matthias Oelke§, Marco Carini and Mario Maggi†

Department of Urology, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, *Endocrinology Unit, Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, †Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Florence, ‡Department of Urology, Sant’Andrea Hospital, University ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy; and §Department of Urology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To summarise and meta-analyse current literature on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), focusing on all the components of MetS and their relationship with prostate volume, transitional zone volume, prostate-specific antigen and urinary symptoms, as evidence suggests an association between MetS and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPE.

METHODS

An extensive PubMed and Scopus search was performed including the following keywords: ‘metabolic syndrome’, ‘diabetes’, ‘hypertension’, ‘obesity’ and ‘dyslipidaemia’ combined with ‘lower urinary tract symptoms’, ‘benign prostatic enlargement’, ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’ and ‘prostate’.

RESULTS

Of the retrieved articles, 82 were selected for detailed evaluation, and eight were included in this review. The eight studies enrolled 5403 patients, of which 1426 (26.4%) had MetS defined according to current classification. Patients with MetS had significantly higher total prostate volume when compared with those without MetS (+1.8 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–2.87; P < 0.001). Conversely, there were no differences between patients with or without MetS for International Prostate Symptom Score total or LUTS subdomain scores. Meta-regression analysis showed that differences in total prostate volume were significantly higher in older (adjusted r = 0.09; P = 0.02), obese patients (adjusted r = 0.26; P < 0.005) and low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (adjusted r = −0.33; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results underline the exacerbating role of MetS-induced metabolic derangements in the development of BPE. Obese, dyslipidaemic, and aged men have a higher risk of having MetS as a determinant of their prostate enlargement.

Editorial: The Prostate – The gateway to men’s health

We have been told for many years that the management of men with LUTS due to BPH was, for most, about treating the impact of those symptoms on their quality of life. However, evidence has been accumulating over recent years to suggest that BPH may be associated with the various components of the metabolic syndrome – a combination of central obesity, impairment of glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Hammarsten et al. [1] examined the link between BPH and 22 individual aspects of the metabolic syndrome and found that BPH was linked to 21 of these factors, including increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis, lending support to the hypothesised association with metabolic syndrome as a whole.

In this issue of BJUI, Gacci et al. [2] report the results of a meta-analysis of eight studies examining this link between BPH and metabolic syndrome, including >5000 patients, of which over a quarter had metabolic syndrome. They report a higher prostate volume (and transitional zone volume) in men with metabolic syndrome than in those without, particularly in older and obese patients and those with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Interestingly however, no difference was seen between the groups in terms of LUTS, as measured by total IPSS or the storage/voiding sub-scores, although other studies have reported this in the past [1]. They conclude that modification of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors, by weight loss, increased exercise, dietary improvements etc., may have a role to play in improving LUTS. In addition, further exploration of the role of medication, such as statins, in the management of LUTS due to BPH is recommended. These conclusions are supported in the literature by observational studies, showing for instance a decrease in the severity of LUTS with increasing exercise, an increased risk of LUTS with obesity, and a delay in the onset of LUTS for patients taking long-term statins of up to 7 years [3, 4].

BPH is not the only urological condition that appears to have links with metabolic syndrome [1]. It is well established that erectile dysfunction has strong associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Less well known links are also seen with prostate cancer, renal calculi, hypogonadism and overactive bladder [5]. We are familiar with carrying out cardiovascular risk assessment, screening for diabetes and giving lifestyle advice to men with erectile dysfunction. Given the evidence suggesting that erectile dysfunction and BPH are closely associated, with many men suffering from both conditions [6], it would suggest that perhaps we should be doing the same for men presenting with symptomatic BPH.

An awareness and understanding of the connection between BPH and metabolic syndrome should encourage all physicians to assess patients with LUTS/BPH for underlying cardiovascular risk. It suggests that as a minimum, a number of baseline investigations should be carried out: blood pressure measurement, a fasting lipid profile (and formal cardiovascular risk profile using established algorithms, such as QRISK®), assessment for diabetes using fasting glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), measurement of weight and BMI, or ideally the measurement of abdominal circumference (as central obesity is a far more sensitive marker of risk than BMI). Identification of features of the metabolic syndrome allows for tailored lifestyle intervention, in terms of increasing exercise, dietary changes, weight loss, smoking cessation advice and alcohol moderation. Medical management of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease may be required according to national guidelines.

Huge numbers of men die prematurely from cardiovascular disease and complications of type 2 diabetes, and men are renowned for poor engagement with primary preventive strategies to decrease this risk. Men presenting to their GP or Urologist with symptoms from BPH are therefore presenting us with an opportunity to intervene and potentially save lives in the process – the prostate can be considered a gateway to wider aspects of men’s health, far beyond the quality-of-life impact of LUTS.

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Jonathan Rees

Backwell & Nailsea Medical Group, North Somerset, UK

References

1 Hammarsten J, Peeker R. Urological aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Urol 2011; 8: 483–94

2 Gacci M, Corona G, Vignozzi L et al. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic enlargement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJU Int 2015; 115: 24–31

3 Parsons JK, Messer K, White M et al. Obesity increases and physical activity decreases lower urinary tract symptom risk in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Eur Urol 2011; 60: 1173–80

4 St Sauver J, Jacobsen SJ, Jacobson DJ et al. Statin use and decreased risk of benign prostatic enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms. BJU Int 2011; 107: 443–50

5 Rees J, Kirby M. Metabolic syndrome and common urological conditions: looking beyond the obvious. Trends in Urology and Men’s Health 2014; 5: 9–14

6 Rosen R, Altwein J, Boyle P et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging male (MSAM-7). Eur Urol 2003; 44: 637–49

 

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