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Article of the Week: PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores correlate with perioperative outcomes of RAPN: analysis of the Vattikuti GQI-RUS database

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores correlate with perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: analysis of the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database

 

Riccardo Schiavina*, Giacomo Novara,, Marco Borghesi*, Vincenzo Ficarra§Rajesh Ahlawat, Daniel A. Moon**, Francesco Porpiglia††,BenjaminJ.Challacombe‡‡Prokar Dasgupta‡‡, Eugenio Brunocilla*, Gaetano La Manna§§, Alessandro Volpe¶¶Hema Verma***, Giuseppe Martorana* and Alexandre Mottrie,†††

 

*Department of Urology, University of Bologna, Bologna,† Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology – Urology Clinic, University of Padua, Padua, Italy, OLV Vattikuti Robotic Surgery Institute, Aalst, Belgium, §Department of
Experimental and Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy, Division of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Medanta Kidney and Urology Institute, Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, India, **Department of Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia, ††San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy, ‡‡Department of Urology, Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, Kings College London, London, UK, §§Department Nephrology and Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, ¶¶University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy, ***Department of Radiology, Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, Kings College London, London, UK, and †††Department of Urology, Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium

 

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate and compare the correlations between Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) and R.E.N.A.L. [Radius (tumour size as maximal diameter), Exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumour, Nearness of tumour deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, Anterior (a)/posterior (p) descriptor and the Location relative to the polar line] nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications in a multicentre, international series of patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for masses suspicious for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of patients who underwent RAPN between 2010 and 2013 for clinical N0M0 renal tumours in four international centres that completed all the data required for the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to define the clinical stage and anatomical characteristics of the tumours. PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were retrospectively assessed in each centre. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the correlations between age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, clinical tumour size, PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. complexity group categories and warm ischaemia time (WIT) of >20 min, urinary calyceal system closure, and grade of postoperative complications.

aotw-mar-4-results

Results

Overall, 277 patients were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) tumour size was 33.0 (22.0–43.0) mm. The median PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were eight and seven, respectively; 112 (40.4%), 86 (31.0%) and 79 (28.5%) patients were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to PADUA score, while 118 (42.5%), 139 (50.1%) and 20 (7.2%) were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to R.E.N.A.L. score, respectively. Both nephrometry tools significantly correlated with perioperative outcomes at univariate and multivariate analyses.

Conclusion

A precise stratification of patients before PN is recommended to consider both the potential threats and benefits of nephron-sparing surgery. In our present analysis, both PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. were significantly associated with predicting prolonged WIT and high-grade postoperative complications after RAPN.

Editorial: Nephrometry scoring systems: valuable research tools, but can they be applied in daily clinical practice?

In this issue of BJUI Schiavina et al. [1] report on the RENAL and PADUA nephrometry scoring systems in predicting peri-operative outcomes, including warm ischaemia time and postoperative complications, in a multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. The authors showed that tumours classified as being of intermediate and high complexity on the PADUA score and high complexity on the RENAL score were associated with a nearly threefold higher risk of longer warm ischaemia times (>20 min). In addition, more complex tumours carried a higher risk of grade 3–4 postoperative complications (most commonly bleeding requiring angioembolization and urine leak requiring a ureteric stent). Notably, the two scoring systems were found to be similar predictors of these peri-operative outcomes on receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses [1].

This represents the first large, multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of these scoring systems in a cohort of patients who purely underwent robot-assisted surgery. A recent study by Borgmann et al. [2] found that, among the reported scoring systems, the RENAL nephrometry score correlated best with achieving negative surgical margins, shorter ischaemia times, and low postoperative complication rates; however, only 9% of patients underwent robot-assisted surgery. Another contemporary series showed concordance between the RENAL and PADUA scoring systems in predicting ischaemia times and complication rates, albeit in patients who only underwent open surgery [3].

Current guidelines recognize nephron-sparing approaches to small renal masses as the standard of care in well-selected patients, with the robot-assisted platform being predominantly adopted in clinical practice where available. Certainly, these nephrometry scores are valuable for urologists in counselling patients on the potential risk of complications specific to the surgical anatomy of the tumour. In addition, the RENAL and PADUA scores (and others) provide a quantitative, objective method for comparing data from different studies and different institutions.

As nephrometry scoring systems continue to be critically evaluated in the robotic surgery era, the question that naturally arises is: which system is best? With regard to this question, the data in the present study do not necessarily favour one or the other for the prediction of clinically relevant peri-operative outcomes. One must recognize, however, that several other anatomy-based scoring systems exist and were not examined in this manuscript [4-6]. While these are very valuable research and patient counselling tools, one must caution against using these nephrometry tools to make clinical decisions; for example, attempting to predict benign vs malignant histology (without a biopsy), attempting to predict high vs low grade tumours, or deciding on whether to perform a radical vs partial nephrectomy, or an open vs minimally invasive approach. After all, one must keep in mind that the area under the curve for these tools is in the range of 0.58–0.63 (0.50 being equivalent to toss of a coin).

It would have been interesting to include clinical size only in the present multivariate analysis (as was done for RENAL and PADUA scoring) and ROC analysis to compare this simple variable with the studied nephrometry scores. Future research should examine additional confounders that could potentially affect postoperative complication rates, such as BMI, adherent perinephric fat, experience of the surgeon actually performing the partial nephrectomy, technique of resection used (e.g. enucleation or resection) among others. This may help to distinguish a single system as the optimum model for use in research and in patient counselling regarding potential postoperative complications.

Matthew A. Meissner and Jose A. Karam

 

Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Andersonn Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

 

 

References

 

 

 

3 Kriegmair MC, Mandel P, Moses A et al. Dening Renal Masses: comprehensive Comparison of RENAL, PADUA, NePhRO, and C-Index Score. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2016; [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1016/ j.clgc.2016.07.029.

 

 

5 Hakky TS, Baumgarten AS, Allen B, Lin HY, Ercole CE, Sexton WJSpiess PE et al. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classication model. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2014; 12: e138

 

6 Simmons MN, Ching CB, Samplaski MK, Park CH, Gill IS et al. Kidney tumor location measurement using the C index method. J Urol 2010; 183: 170813

 

Article of the Week: Perioperative and functional outcomes of elective RAPN for renal tumors with high surgical complexity

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Perioperative and renal functional outcomes of elective robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for renal tumors with high surgical complexity

Alessandro Volpe*†, Diletta Garrou*‡, Daniele Amparore*‡, Geert De Naeyer*, Francesco Porpiglia‡, Vincenzo Ficarra*§ and Alexandre Mottrie*

*Division of Urology, O.L.V. Vattikuti Robotic Surgery Institute, Aalst, Belgium, †Division of Urology, University of Eastern Piedmont, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, ‡Division of Urology, University of Torino, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, and §Division of Urology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the perioperative, postoperative and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for renal tumours with high surgical complexity at a large volume centre.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

Perioperative and functional outcomes of RAPNs for renal tumours with a Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score of ≥10 performed at our institution between September 2006 and December 2012 were collected in a prospectively maintained database and analysed. Surgical complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed at the third postoperative day and 3–6 months after RAPN.

RESULTS

In all, 44 RAPNs for renal tumours with PADUA scores of ≥10 were included in the analysis; 23 tumours (52.3%) were cT1b. The median (interquartile range; range) operative time, estimated blood loss and warm ischaemia time (WIT) were 120 (94, 132; 60–230) min, 150 (80, 200; 25–1200) mL and 16 (13.8, 18; 5–35) min, respectively. Two intraoperative complications occurred (4.5%): one inferior vena caval injury and one bleed from the renal bed, which were both managed robotically. There were postoperative complications in 10 patients (22.7%), of whom four (9.1%) were high Clavien grade, including two bleeds that required percutaneous embolisation, one urinoma that resolved with ureteric stenting and one bowel occlusion managed with laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Two patients (4.5%) had positive surgical margins (PSMs) and were followed expectantly with no radiological recurrence at a mean follow-up of 23 months. The mean serum creatinine levels were significantly increased after surgery (121.1 vs 89.3 μmol/L; P = 0.001), but decreased over time, with no significant differences from the preoperative values at the 6-month follow-up (96.4 vs 89.3 μmol/L; P = 0.09). The same trend was seen for eGFR.

CONCLUSION

In experienced hands RAPN for renal tumours with a PADUA score of ≥10 is feasible with short WIT, acceptable major complication rate and good long-term renal functional outcomes. A slightly higher risk of PSMs can be expected due to the high surgical complexity of these lesions. The robotic technology allows a safe expansion of the indications of minimally invasive PN to anatomically very challenging renal lesions in referral centres.

Editorial: Complex tumours, partial nephrectomy and functional outcomes

In the paper by Volpe et al. [1], excellent renal functional outcomes are associated with partial nephrectomy in patients with high PADUA score cancers. The study is notable because it shows that, even in patients who are typically considered candidates for radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy can maintain excellent estimated GFR (eGFR) and outcomes; however, because we perform nephron-sparing procedures on patients who may also be candidates for radical nephrectomy, we must consider the varied nature of some of the data on partial nephrectomy.

The literature on renal ischaemia and functional outcomes is heterogeneous and highly debated [2]. There have been several contradictory studies and changes over time in the literature based on technology, surgeon, centre, measurement and, now, correlation with parenchyma-sparing.

A study conducted by the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) compared radical nephrectomy (essentially an ischaemic time of infinity) and partial nephrectomy, reporting a 10-year overall survival benefit for patients treated with radical nephrectomy [3]. Nevertheless, this oft-criticized randomised trial also showed better eGFR in partial nephrectomy. The survival benefit reported in that study is countered by population-based studies suggesting that partial nephrectomy may still be a better option when feasible [4]. Unfortunately, these population-based studies may be considered to provide a lower level of evidence than a randomised study, and are also prone to several biases, the most notable being selection of both patients and centres. Surgeons may be more likely to perform nephron-sparing in patients in lower-risk groups. There are also other questions to consider. If a patient is more likely to be referred to a larger centre for partial nephrectomy, are they not also likely to be referred for their coronary artery bypass, aortic surgery, general medical care and even emergency care? Are these patients more likely to seek out second opinions for all of their medical care? Will this affect mortality? Are they more motivated and engaged in their own overall healthcare? These are just a few of the confounding factors that could influence outcomes and are difficult to control in population-based studies. Nevertheless, I am a firm believer in partial nephrectomy, and particularly in preserving renal function, as the better choice for the treatment of both straightforward and complex lesions. It will be difficult, however, to completely negate the implications of the EORTC trial.

Does reasonable ischaemic time affect eGFR outcome? The present study by Volpe et al. [1] would suggest that reasonable ischaemic times are completely acceptable. Several contradictory studies point out the benefits and risks of a limited or minimized clamp time for partial nephrectomy. Another separate paper by White et al. [5] is consistent with other studies that show that a clamped partial nephrectomy, even for high complexity masses, results in a minimal loss of renal function, if at all. Although there is also enthusiasm for a zero ischaemia technique, it is critical to point out that this may be surgeon-, patient-, technique- and institution-dependent. Ultimately, however, we are splitting hairs over a few points of eGFR. The real issue with long-term GFR outcomes in our patients is not only the impact of a few minutes of renal ischaemia, but also control of hypertension, diabetes and their role in medical renal disease. There is an absence of urological literature that controls for patients’ glycated haemoglobin levels or measures hypertension monthly and records the response to medical therapy. These critical pieces of information confound all eGFR and comparative measurements and make it difficult to compare published outcomes. Perhaps the best medical advice we can give patients is to diet, exercise and eat healthily for better overall health. In some sense, this advice may be far more important than the decision of partial vs radical nephrectomy for a complex mass.

What are the logical conclusions of these dilemmas? Clamped partial nephrectomy is possible in complex cases, and the procedure salvages eGFR. Further refinements are also interesting academically, including papers on parenchyma-sparing. Nevertheless, if we are serious about ‘healthy kidneys’, we might take a holistic approach and encourage our patients to pursue a healthier lifestyle so they can bolster lifelong preservation of renal function and general wellness. Would the effect be more profound than a few minutes of ischaemic time? I am betting it would.

Read the full article

Sam B. Bhayani 

Division of Urological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes-Jewish West County Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA

References

1 Volpe A, Garrou D, Amparore D et al. Perioperative and renal functional outcomes of elective robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for renal tumors with high surgical complexity. BJU Int 2014; 114: 903–9

2 Lane BR, Russo P, Uzzo RG et al. Comparison of cold and warm ischemia during partial nephrectomy in 660 solitary kidneys reveals predominant roles of nonmodifiable factors in determining ultimate renal function. J Urol 2011; 185: 421–7

3 Van Poppel H, Da Pozzo L, Albrecht W et al. A prospective, randomized EORTC intergroup phase 3 study comparing the oncologic outcome of elective nephron-sparing surgery and radical nephrectomy for low-stage renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2011; 59: 543–52

4 Sun M, Trinh Q-D, Bianchi M et al. A non-cancer related survival benefit is associated with partial nephrectomy. Eur Urol 2012; 61: 725–31

5 White MA, Georges-Pascal H, Autorino R et al. Outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy for renal masses with nephrometry score of ≥ 7. Urology 2011; 77: 809–13

 

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