Tag Archive for: percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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Video: Comparing FG, USG and CG for renal access in mini-PCNL

A prospective and randomised trial comparing fluoroscopic, total ultrasonographic, and combined guidance for renal access in mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Abstract

Objective

To compare the safety and efficacy of fluoroscopic guidance (FG), total ultrasonographic guidance (USG), and combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance (CG) for percutaneous renal access in mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL).

Patients and methods

The present study was conducted between July 2014 and May 2015 as a prospective randomised trial at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. In all, 450 consecutive patients with renal stones of >2 cm were randomised to undergo FG, USG, or CG mini-PCNL (150 patients for each group). The primary endpoints were the stone-free rate (SFR) and blood loss (haemoglobin decrease during the operation and transfusion rate). Secondary endpoints included access failure rate, operating time, and complications. S.T.O.N.E. score was used to document the complexity of the renal stones. The study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT02266381).

Results

The three groups had similar baseline characteristics. With S.T.O.N.E. scores of 5–6 or 9–13, the SFRs were comparable between the three groups. For S.T.O.N.E. scores of 7–8, FG and CG achieved significantly better SFRs than USG (one-session SFR 85.1% vs 88.5% vs 66.7%, P = 0.006; overall SFR at 3 months postoperatively 89.4% vs 90.2% vs 69.8%, P = 0.002). Multiple-tracts mini-PCNL was used more frequently in the FG and CG groups than in the USG group (20.7% vs 17.1% vs 9.5%, P = 0.028). The mean total radiation exposure time was significantly greater for FG than for CG (47.5 vs 17.9 s, P < 0.001). The USG had zero radiation exposure. There was no significant difference in the haemoglobin decrease, transfusion rate, access failure rate, operating time, nephrostomy drainage time, and hospital stay among the groups. The overall operative complication rates using the Clavien–Dindo grading system were similar between the groups.

Conclusions

Mini-PCNL under USG is as safe and effective as FG or CG in the treatment of simple kidney stones (S.T.O.N.E. scores 5–6) but with no radiation exposure. FG or CG is more effective for patients with S.T.O.N.E. scores of 7–8, where multiple percutaneous tracts may be necessary.

Article of the week: Outcomes of PCNL in England

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Mr. Armitage and Mr. Withington discussing their article.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in England: practice and outcomes described in the Hospital Episode Statistics database

James N. Armitage, John Withington*, Jan van der Meulen*, David A. Cromwell*, Jonathan Glass, William G. Finch§, Stuart O. Irving§ and Neil A. Burgess§

Department of Urology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, *Clinical Effectiveness Unit, The Royal College of Surgeons of England, Department of Urology, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, and §Department of Urology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Norwich, UK

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To investigate the postoperative outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• We extracted records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database for all patients undergoing PCNL between March 2006 and January 2011 in English NHS hospitals.

• Outcome measures were haemorrhage, infection within the index admission, and rates of emergency readmission and in-hospital mortality within 30 days of surgery.

RESULTS

• A total of 5750 index PCNL procedures were performed in 165 hospitals.

• During the index admission, haemorrhage was recorded in 81 patients (1.4%), 192 patients (3.8%) had a urinary tract infection (UTI), 95 patients (1.7%) had fever, and 41 patients (0.7%) had sepsis.

• There were 595 emergency readmissions in 518 patients (9.0%). Reasons for readmission were varied: 70 (1.2%) with UTI, 15 (0.3%) sepsis, 73 (1.3%) haematuria, 25 (0.4%) haemorrhage, and 25 (0.4%) acute urinary retention.

• There were 13 (0.2%) in-hospital deaths within 30 days of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

• Haemorrhage and infection represent relatively common and potentially severe complications of PCNL.

• Mortality is extremely rare after PCNL (about one in 400 procedures overall) but almost one in 10 patients have an unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery.

• Complications of PCNL may be under-reported in the HES database and need to be corroborated using other data sources.

 

Read more articles of the week

Editorial: How are we doing with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in England?

Over the past several years, with publications of studies evaluating multiple aspects of nephrolithiasis using large databases, our overview of kidney stone disease has vastly expanded. The most recent addition by Armitage et al. [1], published in this issue of BJUI, gives us a view of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) outcomes in England that we otherwise would have difficulty seeing without tapping into a database study. Several salient features of this investigation are worth pointing out.

With any study comes the uncertainty of its validity. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) theory dictates we first ask ‘Are the results valid?’ rather than ‘What are the results?’. This study reports similar outcomes to a prior database study of the BAUS, giving us confidence that data from different sources still produce somewhat similar outcomes, hence adding validity to both studies [2]. Moreover, it is further reassuring that the type of epidemiological source of the information was derived from completely different origins, i.e. Armitage et al. [1] used an administrative database from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) to create their outcomes while the BAUS used a voluntary online prospective database for British surgeons.

The second question that forms the basis of EBM is ‘What are the results?’. The HES data confirmed several findings of PCNL seen in other studies, including in both international series from the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) as well as American administrative database studies using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) [3-5]. Overall complications occur anywhere from 6% to 15% of the time, with the most common complications including infection and bleeding. Compared with these recent studies, the HES study reports lower bleeding, UTI and sepsis rates, which the authors admit could represents an under-reporting phenomenon. Mortality is an exceedingly rare event in all these studies. Overall, complication rates are comparable and give us assurance that they align approximately with other worldwide data. Another important finding with the HES database is the decreased length of stay for patients over time. Lastly, from a physician credentialing standpoint this study has relevant findings. It suggests that the HES administrative database may be a viable source of information to assist in the surgeon validating process.

Weaknesses of administrative database studies include the lack of detail that prospective clinical databases provide. Clinically pertinent PCNL endpoints are inherently absent for both patient and surgical domains. Missing patient information includes stone size, stone-free rates, and patient obesity, which are all reflections of clinical case difficulty. Missing critical surgical information includes where (upper, mid or lower calyx), who (urologist or radiologist) and how (balloon, serial dilators) access is obtained. As mentioned above, the uncertainty of under-coding clinical information always exists.

Why are large database studies, including this article, important? These studies are timely given the recent advocating of retrograde ureteroscopic treatment of large renal calculi [6]. Publication of low complication rates with equal efficacy in an outpatient setting has made ureteroscopic treatment of partial and staghorn renal calculi attractive. Even laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy has been advocated to further challenge the ‘gold standard’ treatment of PCNL [7]. It is therefore clinically important that British PCNL complication rates are low and that length of stay is decreasing to affirm the role that PCNL has with large renal calculi.

The role of PCNL surgery for renal calculi continues to develop but, more importantly, the value of these large epidemiological studies also continues to grow. They help us to look not only from the ground level but also give us perspective from a different, if not ‘higher’ level, which taken together helps shapes our interpretation of PCNL.

Roger L. Sur

Department of Urology, UC San Diego Health System, San Diego, CA, USA

Read the full article

References

  1. Armitage JN, Withington J, Van der Meulen J et al. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in England: practice and outcomes described in the hospital episode statistics database. BJU Int 2014; 113: 777–782
  2. Armitage JN, Irving SO, Burgess NA, British Association of Urological Surgeons Section of Endourology. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the United Kingdom: results of a prospective data registry. Eur Urol 2012; 61: 1188–1193
  3. de la Rosette J, Assimos D, Desai M et al. The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study: indications, complications, and outcomes in 5803 patients. J Endourol 2011; 25: 11–17
  4. Mirheydar HS, Palazzi KL, Derweesh IH, Chang DC, Sur RL. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy use is increasing in the United States: an analysis of trends and complications. J Endourol 2013; 27: 979–983
  5. Ghani KR, Sammon JD, Bhojani N et al. Trends in percutaneous nephrolithotomy use and outcomes in the United States. J Urol 2013; 190: 558–564
  6. Aboumarzouk OM, Monga M, Kata SG, Traxer O, Somani BK. Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for stones >2 cm: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endourol 2012; 26: 1257–1263
  7. Aminsharifi A, Hadian P, Boveiri K. Laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy for management of complete staghorn renal stone: clinical efficacy and intermediate-term functional outcome. J Endourol 2013; 27: 573–578

 

Video: PCNL practice and outcomes in England

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in England: practice and outcomes described in the Hospital Episode Statistics database

James N. Armitage, John Withington*, Jan van der Meulen*, David A. Cromwell*, Jonathan Glass, William G. Finch§, Stuart O. Irving§ and Neil A. Burgess§

Department of Urology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, *Clinical Effectiveness Unit, The Royal College of Surgeons of England, Department of Urology, Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, and §Department of Urology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Norwich, UK

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To investigate the postoperative outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• We extracted records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database for all patients undergoing PCNL between March 2006 and January 2011 in English NHS hospitals.

• Outcome measures were haemorrhage, infection within the index admission, and rates of emergency readmission and in-hospital mortality within 30 days of surgery.

RESULTS

• A total of 5750 index PCNL procedures were performed in 165 hospitals.

• During the index admission, haemorrhage was recorded in 81 patients (1.4%), 192 patients (3.8%) had a urinary tract infection (UTI), 95 patients (1.7%) had fever, and 41 patients (0.7%) had sepsis.

• There were 595 emergency readmissions in 518 patients (9.0%). Reasons for readmission were varied: 70 (1.2%) with UTI, 15 (0.3%) sepsis, 73 (1.3%) haematuria, 25 (0.4%) haemorrhage, and 25 (0.4%) acute urinary retention.

• There were 13 (0.2%) in-hospital deaths within 30 days of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

• Haemorrhage and infection represent relatively common and potentially severe complications of PCNL.

• Mortality is extremely rare after PCNL (about one in 400 procedures overall) but almost one in 10 patients have an unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery.

• Complications of PCNL may be under-reported in the HES database and need to be corroborated using other data sources.

 

Read more articles of the week

Article of the week: Going solo: using ultrasonography alone to guide PCNL

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by prominent members of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Dr Yan and colleagues of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided solely by ultrasonography: a 5-year study of >700 cases

Song Yan, Fei Xiang and Song Yongsheng

Division of Urology, Sheng Jing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) solely guided by ultrasonography (US).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• From May 2007 to July 2012, 705 24-F-tract PCNL procedures were performed (679 patients, of whom 26 had bilateral stones).

• Calyceal puncture and dilatation were performed under US guidance in all cases.

• The procedure was evaluated for access success, length of postoperative hospital stay, complications (modified Clavien system), stone clearance and the need for auxiliary treatments.

RESULTS

• The mean (sd) operating time was 66 (25) min, with a mean (sd) postoperative hospital stay of 3.98 (1.34) days.

• The patients experienced a mean (sd) haemoglobin level decrease of 2.24 (2.02) g/day and the overall stone-free rate at 4 weeks after surgery was 92.6% in patients with a single calculus and 82.9% in patients with staghorn or multiple calculi.

• Auxiliary treatments, including shockwave lithotripsy in 52 patients, re-PCNL in 41 patients and ureteroscopy in 18 patients, were performed 1 week after the primary procedure in 111 (15.7%) cases for residual stones >4 mm in size.

• The sensitivities of intra-operative US-guidance and flexible nephroscopy for detecting significant residual stones and clinically insignificant residual fragments were 95.3 and 89.1%, respectively.

• There were 94 grade 1 (13.3%), 17 grade 2 (2.4%), and two grade 3 (0.3%) complications, but there were no grade 4 or 5 complications.

CONCLUSION

• Total US-guided PCNL is safe and convenient, and may be performed without any major complications and with the advantage of preventing radiation hazards and damage to adjacent organs.

 

Read Previous Articles of the Week

 

Editorial: Totally X-ray-free percutaneous nephrolithotomy: caveat emptor

In the accompanying paper, Yan et al. [1] present the outcomes of their study on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) guided only by ultrasonography (US).

This is the largest series (705 patients) to date on PCNL purely under US control and reports stone-free and complication rates that are consistent with those commonly reported for PCNL guided by X-ray or by a combination of X-ray and US.

Since its introduction more than three decades ago, PCNL has traditionally been performed under fluoroscopic control by the majority of urologists, even though US guidance has now gained wide acceptance as a means of achieving renal access. Now, the most important international guidelines suggest that US be used in addition to fluoroscopy [2]. US guidance has the following advantages: it minimizes radiation exposure, allows the detection of viscera that can sometimes lie in the trajectory of the puncturing needle and avoids contrast-related complications. Furthermore, US provides imaging of the collecting system in three-dimensional orientations and helps to distinguish between anterior and posterior calyces with great accuracy. Nevertheless, the innovative concept proposed by Yan et al. [1], with their impressive series, concerns the whole procedure (puncture, creation of renal access and final look to rule out eventual residual fragments), and not only the safe accomplishment of the puncture solely under US guidance.

Caution should be taken in interpreting their results. This is a purely retrospective study which guarantees only a low level of evidence (3B). In addition, even though major complications arising during the creation of access were not reported in the paper, doubts remain about the safety of using only US guidance in monitoring the dilatation process by either balloon or coaxial dilators. The following questions still need to be addressed. How can the progression of dilators be monitored to avoid excessive inadvertent medial advances with the accompanying high risk of collecting system perforation? How can false passage of a working guidewire be detected early by US? What about obese patients in whom the effectiveness of US is generally impaired?

To balance the risks and benefits of guidance solely by US, a middle ground could be represented by US guidance aided by ureteroscopic monitoring of the dilatation process using the so-called ‘Endovision technique’ [3], as is possible during endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) (Fig. 1). In view of the risks, it should be stressed that, even though PCNL guided solely by US is an attractive option, biplanar C-arm fluoroscopy should always be present in the operating room.

It is well known that radiation hazard is directly proportional to cumulative radiation exposure time, so US guidance provides an obvious advantage in terms of absence of radiation for patient and operating room staff, but is the extent of this advantage really known? It is important to underline that the amount of radiation exposure during PCNL is not particularly great, measuring on average 0.56 mSv for the patient and 0.28 mSv for the urologist [4]. By contrast, unenhanced CT involves a significant radiation exposure of 8.6 mSv [5], which is of course particularly relevant for patients with stones, who are often quite young and likely to experience recurrence. According to the ‘as low as reasonably achievable’ (or ALARA) principle, replacing CT scans with US in the follow-up would have a much greater impact on reducing radiation exposure in adult patients (in the present series patients undergo two CT scans after surgery, at 48 h and 4 weeks, and one preoperative CT scan!) than would renouncing the safety guaranteed by X-ray monitoring during endourology.

Finally, it is of paramount importance to stress that, in the current climate in which malpractice litigation related to endourology continues to rise [6], it is still advisable that PCNL guided solely by US should be performed only in trials for which approval of the local institutional review board has been obtained.

To conclude, Yan et al. [1] propose an alternative approach to PCNL that involves solely US guidance, but some doubts remain. Only further well designed, prospective, comparative and possibly randomized studies will allow us to draw definitive conclusions.

Guido Giusti
Head of Stone Center & European Training, Center in Endourology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy

Read the full article

References

  1. Yan S, Xiang F, Yongsheng S. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided solely by ultrasonography: a 5-year study of >700 cases. BJU Int 2013; 112: 965–971
  2. Türk C, Knoll T, Petrik A et al. 2013 EAU Guidelines on Urolithiasis
  3. Scoffone CM, Cracco CM et al. Endoscopic Combined intrarenal surgery in galdakao-modified supine valdivia position: a new standard for percutaneous nephrolithotomy? Eur Urol 2008; 54: 1393–1403
  4. Kumari G, Kumar P, Wadhwa P, Aron M, Gupta NP, Dogra PN. Radiation exposure to the patient and operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Int Urol Nephrol 2006; 38: 207–210
  5. Katz SI, Saluja S, Brink JA, SForman HP. Radiation dose associate with unenhanced CT for suspected renal colic: impact of repetitive studies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006; 186: 1120–1124
  6. Duty B, Okhunov Z, Okeke Z, Smith A. Medical malpractice in endourology: analysis of closed cases from the State of New York. J Urol 2012; 187: 528–532

Video: Move over fluoroscopy: ultrasound-guided PCNL is just as good

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided solely by ultrasonography: a 5-year study of >700 cases

Song Yan, Fei Xiang and Song Yongsheng

Division of Urology, Sheng Jing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) solely guided by ultrasonography (US).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• From May 2007 to July 2012, 705 24-F-tract PCNL procedures were performed (679 patients, of whom 26 had bilateral stones).

• Calyceal puncture and dilatation were performed under US guidance in all cases.

• The procedure was evaluated for access success, length of postoperative hospital stay, complications (modified Clavien system), stone clearance and the need for auxiliary treatments.

RESULTS

• The mean (sd) operating time was 66 (25) min, with a mean (sd) postoperative hospital stay of 3.98 (1.34) days.

• The patients experienced a mean (sd) haemoglobin level decrease of 2.24 (2.02) g/day and the overall stone-free rate at 4 weeks after surgery was 92.6% in patients with a single calculus and 82.9% in patients with staghorn or multiple calculi.

• Auxiliary treatments, including shockwave lithotripsy in 52 patients, re-PCNL in 41 patients and ureteroscopy in 18 patients, were performed 1 week after the primary procedure in 111 (15.7%) cases for residual stones >4 mm in size.

• The sensitivities of intra-operative US-guidance and flexible nephroscopy for detecting significant residual stones and clinically insignificant residual fragments were 95.3 and 89.1%, respectively.

• There were 94 grade 1 (13.3%), 17 grade 2 (2.4%), and two grade 3 (0.3%) complications, but there were no grade 4 or 5 complications.

CONCLUSION

• Total US-guided PCNL is safe and convenient, and may be performed without any major complications and with the advantage of preventing radiation hazards and damage to adjacent organs.

Article of the week: Plasma vaporization: the new standard for PCNL tract creation?

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects the Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video procedure by Dr Chiang and colleagues showing tract creation using plasma vaporization.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

 

Randomized and prospective trial comparing tract creation using plasma vaporization with balloon dilatation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Po Hui Chiang and Hsin Hao Su

Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma vaporization for tract creation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• In this randomized prospective trial we enrolled 65 patients and assigned each to one of two groups: 33 patients were randomly scheduled to undergo plasma vaporization and 32 were scheduled to undergo balloon dilatation for tract creation.

• A bipolar resectoscope mounted with a plasma vaporization button electrode or a traditional balloon dilator were used to create the nephrostomy tract.

RESULTS

• The mean blood loss, mean length of hospital stay and mean operating time, stone-free rates and postoperative complications in the two groups were compared using the t-test or chi-squared test (Fisher’s exact test).

• The plasma vaporization group had a significantly lower mean (SD) decrease in haematocrit level (3.5 [2.8]% vs 6.6 [3.3]%; P = 0.02) and a shorter mean (SD) hospital stay (2.6 [1.2] days vs 5.3 [3.4] days; P = 0.0).

• There were no significant differences in the operating time, stone-free rate or cases of postoperative fever between the two groups.

CONCLUSION

• The plasma vaporization technique is safe, leads to less blood loss than the other techniques, and is a simple solution for creating the nephrostomy tract for PCNL.

 

Read Previous Articles of the Week

 

Editorial: PCNL tract creation: think plasma vaporization

Surgical planning and access are important factors for successful stone-free outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL); however, PCNL has a high risk of haemorrhagic complications (reported transfusion rates of up to 12%), which curtail surgery and result in suboptimum outcomes. Access to the pelvicalyceal system remains the major risk for bleeding, often associated with an off-set tract, splitting of the infundibulum/pelvis and/or angulated sheath, and requiring inordinate torque. The ideal tract dilatation method is still being debated, with differing reports on operating time and blood loss (Urol Int 2003, BJU Int 2005J Endourol 2008J Endourol 2011).

The present study evaluates a new method for percutaneous renal access, reporting a shorter operating time, a lower drop in haemoglobin levels and a shorter hospital stay, with no patient requiring transfusion. A patient selection bias might exist, which would explain the low complication rate. Also, the vaporization bubbles and the bleeding could result in difficult views, requiring a high level of expertise in plasma vaporization. The authors did not observe peri-nephric space fluid extravasation or dislodging of the single safety wire. Despite the promising outcome, the reproducibility of this technique remains to be seen, but this is a promising account of reducing bleeding and operating times and maintaining better visualization in PCNL.

Joe Philip
Department of Urology, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on Trym, and University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Read the full article

Video: Tract creation using plasma vaporization

Randomized and prospective trial comparing tract creation using plasma vaporization with balloon dilatation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Po Hui Chiang and Hsin Hao Su

Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Read the full article
OBJECTIVE

• To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma vaporization for tract creation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

PATIENTS AND METHODS

• In this randomized prospective trial we enrolled 65 patients and assigned each to one of two groups: 33 patients were randomly scheduled to undergo plasma vaporization and 32 were scheduled to undergo balloon dilatation for tract creation.

• A bipolar resectoscope mounted with a plasma vaporization button electrode or a traditional balloon dilator were used to create the nephrostomy tract.

RESULTS

• The mean blood loss, mean length of hospital stay and mean operating time, stone-free rates and postoperative complications in the two groups were compared using the t-test or chi-squared test (Fisher’s exact test).

• The plasma vaporization group had a significantly lower mean (SD) decrease in haematocrit level (3.5 [2.8]% vs 6.6 [3.3]%; P = 0.02) and a shorter mean (SD) hospital stay (2.6 [1.2] days vs 5.3 [3.4] days; P = 0.0).

• There were no significant differences in the operating time, stone-free rate or cases of postoperative fever between the two groups.

CONCLUSION

• The plasma vaporization technique is safe, leads to less blood loss than the other techniques, and is a simple solution for creating the nephrostomy tract for PCNL.

 

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