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Article of the Month: Combined mpMRI Fusion and Systematic Biopsies Predict the Final Tumour Grading after RP

Every Month the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video from Angelika Borkowetz, discussing her paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Direct comparison of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results with final histopathology in patients with proven prostate cancer in MRI/ultrasonography-fusion biopsy

Angelika Borkowetz*, Ivan Platzek, Marieta Toma, Theresa Renner*, Roman Herout*, Martin Baunacke*, Michael Laniado, Gustavo Baretton, Michael Froehner*, Stefan Zastrow* and Manfred Wirth*

 

*Department of Urology, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, and
Department of Pathology, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany

 

Objective

To compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and histological findings of both targeted MRI/ultrasonography-fusion prostate biopsy (PBx) and systematic PBx with final histology of the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen.

Patients and Methods

A total of 105 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) histopathologically proven using a combination of fusion Pbx and systematic PBx, who underwent RP, were investigated. All patients had been examined using mpMRI, applying the European Society of Urogenital Radiology criteria. Histological findings from the RP specimen were compared with those from the PBx. Whole-mount RP specimen and mpMRI results were directly compared by a uro-pathologist and a uro-radiologist in step-section analysis.

AugAOTM1

Results

In the 105 patients with histopathologically proven PCa by combination of fusion PBx and systematic PBx, the detection rate of PCa was 90% (94/105) in fusion PBx alone and 68% (72/105) in systematic PBx alone (P = 0.001). The combination PBx detected 23 (22%) Gleason score (GS) 6, 69 (66%) GS 7 and 13 (12%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone detected 25 (26%) GS 6, 57 (61%) GS 7 and 12 (13%) GS ≥8 tumours. Systematic PBx alone detected 17 (24%) GS 6, 49 (68%) GS 7 and 6 (8%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone would have missed 11 tumours (4% [4/105] of GS 6, 6% [6/105] of GS 7 and 1% [1/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). Systematic PBx alone would have missed 33 tumours (10% [10/105] of GS 6, 20% [21/105] of GS 7 and 2% [2/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). The rates of concordance with regard to GS between the PBx and RP specimen were 63% (n = 65), 54% (n = 56) and 75% (n = 78) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx (fusion and systematic PBx combined), respectively. Upgrading of the GS between PBx and RP specimen occurred in 33% (n = 34), 44% (n = 46) and 18% (n = 19) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx, respectively. γ-correlation for detection of any cancer was 0.76 for combination PBx, 0.68 for fusion PBx alone and 0.23 for systematic PBx alone. In all, 84% (n = 88) of index tumours were identified by mpMRI; 86% (n = 91) of index lesions on the mpMRI were proven in the RP specimen.

Conclusions

Fusion PBx of tumour-suspicious lesions on mpMRI was associated with a higher detection rate of more aggressive PCa and a better tumour prediction in final histopathology than systematic PBx alone; however, combination PBx had the best concordance for the prediction of GS. Furthermore, the additional findings of systematic PBx reflect the multifocality of PCa, therefore, the combination of both biopsy methods would still represent the best approach for the prediction of the final tumour grading in PCa.

Editorial: Role of systematic biopsy in the era of mpMRI and US fusion guidance

The success of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsies in improving the detection of prostate cancer in patients with occult disease (elevated PSA level with prior negative biopsies) and optimising the detection of clinically significant cancer has been reported by centres that have served as early adopters of these techniques [1, 2]. Technological advances in MRI and associated imaging protocols, as well as increased clinical experience with MRI interpretation have led to increased prospective detection and characterisation of clinically significant prostate cancer. This, in conjunction with increasing experience with MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy techniques, has led to the re-evaluation of the contributory role and utility of systematic template US-guided prostate biopsies in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. It is an attractive proposition to forego the systematic biopsy when performing MRI-directed fusion biopsy, as this would minimise the duration, morbidity, and overall cost of the biopsy procedure and post-biopsy pathology processing. However, before adopting this approach, it is important to first consider the potential possibility of missing clinically significant cancer diagnoses when relying on the targeted biopsy cores in isolation.

In this issue of BJUI, Borkowetz et al. [3] report their results of biopsy histological yields on systematic biopsies compared with MRI/US fusion biopsies in their series of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). These results corroborate previously reported comparisons of fusion biopsy of suspicious lesions on MRI performed concurrently with systematic biopsy, consistently showing an improved detection of both overall prostate cancer foci and, more importantly, an improved detection of clinically significant higher grade cancer foci [1, 2]. It is important to note that the overall detection rate and detection rate for clinically significant prostate cancer was highest when fusion and systematic biopsies were evaluated in conjunction with each other. Another important factor to consider when evaluating the utility and value of these biopsy techniques is the concordance of the pathology of the biopsy specimen with the final pathology of the RP specimen, the ‘gold standard’. The concordance of Gleason grade assigned on targeted fusion-biopsy cores and RP outperformed that of systematic biopsy cores and RP. This, in essence, suggests that targeted biopsy can perform as well, and likely better, than the systematic biopsy approach of sampling the prostate with a systematic-sextant approach, which has been the long standing standard of care for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Again, it is important to note that the greatest concordance in this study was achieved when the results of the fusion and systematic biopsy cores were combined.

The question now arises regarding the ‘cost’ for the incremental improvement in cancer detection provided by the combination of both MRI-directed fusion biopsy and the systematic biopsy approach. The improved negative predictive value parallels the increased sensitivity for cancer detection by having a larger sampling of the prostate by augmenting the number of biopsy cores sampled and submitted for histopathological evaluation. The area under the curve for detection of clinically significant cancer reported by Borkowetz et al. [3] was not improved by adding systematic biopsies to the targeted biopsies. However, this experience described a mixed population of patients, most of whom had undergone prior prostate biopsy with benign pathology. This creates an enriched population who likely harbours prostate cancers that are more occult to the systematic biopsy approach, thus improving the diagnostic yield of MRI-directed biopsies even further. This is concordant with the work presented by Mendhiratta et al. [4], where systematic biopsies added little to the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in a population of men undergoing MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy after prior cancer-negative biopsy sessions.

Alternatively, current datasets for biopsy naïve patients have not shown the same degree of convincingly improved detection with targeted biopsies over systematic biopsies. In fact, Delongchamps et al. [5] recently reported a slightly lower rate of overall cancer detection with fusion-guided targeted biopsies vs systematic biopsy cores; however, the difference in detection of clinically significant prostate cancer was not statistically significant. Further study of the role of targeted biopsy in the biopsy naïve patient population is warranted, as there is suggestion that cancer detection efficiency per needle core is significantly improved with MRI-directed biopsies over systematic biopsies [6]. Alternatively, in patients with prior negative systematic biopsies and continued clinical suspicion for prostate cancer, a repeat biopsy session with targeted cores alone may be appropriate, particularly as these patients have previously undergone standard-of-care, extended sextant biopsy.

Jason A. Pietryga* and Soroush Rais-Bahrami*,
*Department of Radiology, and Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

 

References

 

 

 

 

 

Video: Combined mpMRI Fusion and Systematic Biopsies Predict the Final Tumour Grading after RP

Direct comparison of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results with final histopathology in patients with proven prostate cancer in MRI/ultrasonography-fusion biopsy

Angelika Borkowetz*, Ivan Platzek, Marieta Toma, Theresa Renner*, Roman Herout*, Martin Baunacke*, Michael Laniado, Gustavo Baretton, Michael Froehner*, Stefan Zastrow* and Manfred Wirth*

 

*Department of Urology, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, and
Department of Pathology, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany

 

Objective

To compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and histological findings of both targeted MRI/ultrasonography-fusion prostate biopsy (PBx) and systematic PBx with final histology of the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen.

Patients and Methods

A total of 105 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) histopathologically proven using a combination of fusion Pbx and systematic PBx, who underwent RP, were investigated. All patients had been examined using mpMRI, applying the European Society of Urogenital Radiology criteria. Histological findings from the RP specimen were compared with those from the PBx. Whole-mount RP specimen and mpMRI results were directly compared by a uro-pathologist and a uro-radiologist in step-section analysis.

AugAOTM1

Results

In the 105 patients with histopathologically proven PCa by combination of fusion PBx and systematic PBx, the detection rate of PCa was 90% (94/105) in fusion PBx alone and 68% (72/105) in systematic PBx alone (P = 0.001). The combination PBx detected 23 (22%) Gleason score (GS) 6, 69 (66%) GS 7 and 13 (12%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone detected 25 (26%) GS 6, 57 (61%) GS 7 and 12 (13%) GS ≥8 tumours. Systematic PBx alone detected 17 (24%) GS 6, 49 (68%) GS 7 and 6 (8%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone would have missed 11 tumours (4% [4/105] of GS 6, 6% [6/105] of GS 7 and 1% [1/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). Systematic PBx alone would have missed 33 tumours (10% [10/105] of GS 6, 20% [21/105] of GS 7 and 2% [2/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). The rates of concordance with regard to GS between the PBx and RP specimen were 63% (n = 65), 54% (n = 56) and 75% (n = 78) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx (fusion and systematic PBx combined), respectively. Upgrading of the GS between PBx and RP specimen occurred in 33% (n = 34), 44% (n = 46) and 18% (n = 19) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx, respectively. γ-correlation for detection of any cancer was 0.76 for combination PBx, 0.68 for fusion PBx alone and 0.23 for systematic PBx alone. In all, 84% (n = 88) of index tumours were identified by mpMRI; 86% (n = 91) of index lesions on the mpMRI were proven in the RP specimen.

Conclusions

Fusion PBx of tumour-suspicious lesions on mpMRI was associated with a higher detection rate of more aggressive PCa and a better tumour prediction in final histopathology than systematic PBx alone; however, combination PBx had the best concordance for the prediction of GS. Furthermore, the additional findings of systematic PBx reflect the multifocality of PCa, therefore, the combination of both biopsy methods would still represent the best approach for the prediction of the final tumour grading in PCa.

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