Tag Archive for: #KidneyCancer

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Article of the week: Prognostic evaluation of perinephric fat, renal sinus fat, and renal vein invasion for patients with pathological stage T3a clear‐cell RCC

Every week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. These are intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation. 

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Prognostic evaluation of perinephric fat, renal sinus fat, and renal vein invasion for patients with pathological stage T3a clear‐cell renal cell carcinoma

Paras H. Shah*, Timothy D. Lyon*, Christine M. Lohse, John C. Cheville,
Bradley C. Leibovich*, Stephen A. Boorjian* and R. Houston Thompson*
 
*Department of Urology, Department of Health Sciences Research, and
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the prognostic significance of various patterns of extrarenal extension that comprise pathological stage T3a clear‐cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) amongst patients undergoing nephrectomy for non‐metastatic disease.

Patients and Methods

A retrospective review of 563 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for pathologically confirmed T3aN0/NxM0 ccRCC between 1970 and 2011 was performed. All pathological slides were re‐reviewed by one urological pathologist. Associations of patterns of extrarenal extension (perinephric fat [PF], renal sinus fat [SF], and renal vein [RV], in isolation or in any combination) with disease progression, cancer‐specific mortality (CSM), and all‐cause mortality were evaluated on multivariable analyses.

Fig. 1. Progression-free survival stratified by type of extrarenal extension

Results

Overall, PF invasion, renal SF invasion, and RV tumour thrombus were present in 144 (26%), 51 (9%), and 163 (29%) patients, respectively, with multiple patterns of extrarenal extension identified in 205 (36%) patients. There were no significant differences in survival outcomes for isolated involvement of PF, renal SF, or RV. However, patients with multiple patterns of extrarenal extension were at significantly increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.65; P = 0.020), CSM (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.27–2.12; P < 0.001), and all‐cause mortality (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.61; P = 0.008).

Conclusions

The presence of multiple patterns of extrarenal extension is associated with a higher risk of disease progression and cancer‐related death after radical nephrectomy compared to isolated involvement of the PF, renal SF, or RV, which carry similar prognostic weight. If validated, these findings may help refine risk stratification of non‐metastatic T3a RCC by distinguishing patients with multiple vs one pattern of extrarenal extension.

 

Article of the Week: Multiple Growth Periods of SRMs Predict Unfavourable Pathology

Every Week, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video discussing the paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Multiple growth periods predict unfavourable pathology in patients with small renal masses

Alex Jang , Hiten D. Patel, Mark Riffon, Michael A. Gorin , Alice SemerjianMichael H. Johnson, Mohamad E. Allaf and Phillip M. Pierorazio

 

Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

 

Abstract

Objective

To use the number of positive growth periods as a characterization of the growth of small renal masses in order to determine potential predictors of malignancy.

Patients and Methods

Patients who underwent axial imaging at multiple time points prior to surgical resection for a small renal mass were queried. Patients were categorized based on their pathological tumour grade and stage: favourable (benign, chromophobe and low‐grade pT1–2 renal cell carcinoma [RCC]) vs unfavourable (high‐grade of any stage and low‐grade pT3–4 RCC). A positive growth period was counted each time the difference in greatest tumour diameters between two images was positive. The Cochran–Armitage trend test and Somers’ D association were used to determine if the number of positive growth periods was correlated with unfavourable pathology.

Results

Of the 124 patients, 86 (69.4%) had favourable pathology and 38 (30.6%) had unfavourable pathology. Those who had favourable pathology were younger than those who had unfavourable pathology: median (interquartile range [IQR]) 61.0 (52.2–66.0) vs 68.5 (61.5–77.0); P < 0.001. The overall growth rate was higher in the unfavourable group, but was not statistically significant: mean (sd) 0.7 (1.7) vs 1.6 (2.8) cm/year; P = 0.07. There was a significant trend difference in the number of positive growth periods between favourability groups (P = 0.02). An association between increased number of positive growth periods and unfavourable pathology was observed: 0.15 (95% confidence interval 0.02, 0.29). The ratios of favourable to unfavourable pathology were 1.8, 1.0, 0.66, 0.59 and 0 as the number of positive growth periods increased from 0 to 4, respectively.

Conclusion

While overall growth rate was not predictive of pathology favourability, there was a positive association between the number of positive growth periods and unfavourable pathology. The number of positive growth periods may be a potential parameter for malignant potential in patients undergoing active surveillance for small renal masses.

Article of the Month: Comparing survival after RN vs NSS in RCC

Every Month, the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Month from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this month, it should be this one.

Testing the external validity of the EORTC randomized trial 30904 comparing overall survival after radical nephrectomy vs nephron-sparing surgery in contemporary North American patients with renal cell cancer

 

Firas Abdollah, * Sohrab Arora, * Nicolas von Landenberg, Philipp GildAkshay Sood, * Deepansh Dalela, * Quoc-Dien Trinh§Mani Menon, * and Craig Rogers, *

 

*Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA, Department of Urology, Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany, Department of Urology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg,Germany and §Division of Urological Surgery and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

 

The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized trial 30904 reported that for solitary renal masses ≤5 cm, radical nephrectomy (RN) was associated with a higher overall survival (OS; primary endpoint): 81%, compared with 76% for nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) at a median follow-up of 9.3 years (P = 0.03). The difference in cancer-specific mortality, however, was not significant. For histologically proven RCC, and after exclusion of patients with positive surgical margins, NSS was associated with equivalent OS compared with RN [1]. It is noteworthy that the renal function outcomes of the two groups in the trial have been reanalysed, showing that renal function does not decline over time after RN, as was expected [2].

The EORTC 30904 trial had difficulty recruiting and randomizing patients, and was criticized for not meeting the accrual goal of 1300 patients. Additionally, the generalizability of the study findings to ‘real-world’ patients has been questioned. Despite the criticism, and more than 20 retrospective studies [3, 4] showing better OS and cancer-specific survival with NSS, this randomized clinical trial (RCT) remains the only available level 1 evidence on this subject. Notably, no study to date has formally examined the external validity [5] of the trial.

For any RCT to be externally valid, its supposedly randomly selected sample must be representative of the general population seen in clinical practice. In this context, we studied patients with localized RCC treated with NSS or RN within the National Cancer Database (NCDB), in an effort to test the external validity of the EORTC 30904. Our objective was not to compare survival outcomes between the two treatment arms, as this is beyond the scope of examining the external validity of an RCT, and such analysis is already available in literature. Instead, our aim was to ascertain if the trial patients were representative of contemporary patients with RCC in the USA, using the NCDB, which captures ~70% of all incident cancer diagnoses in the USA [6].

We identified patients who met the clinical and pathological inclusion criteria of the EORTC 30904 within the NCDB from 2004 to 2013: histologically confirmed RCC; tumour size ≤5 cm; clinically node-negative, non-metastatic disease; no positive surgical margins; and no pT3/4 disease. After exclusions, there were 90 844 assessable patients within the NCDB, of whom 41 588 (45.78%) underwent RN and 49256 (54.22%) underwent NSS. The demographic characteristics, namely, age, gender (percentage of men), presence of comorbidities (yes/no), histology (clear cell/non-clear cell), Fuhrman grade (1, 2, 3 or 4) and surgical approach (open/robotic/laparoscopic) were then compared with the patients enrolled in the EORTC 30904. The statistical significance of differences in categorical variables was tested using the chi-squared test. Unfortunately, the trial did not provide measures of variance (such as standard deviation, or interquartile range) for continuously coded variables; we were therefore unable to test for the statistical significance of differences in these variables. All analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA), with a P value <0.05 taken to indicate statistical significance.

The median age of the NCDB cohort was 60.0 years, compared with 62.0 years in the EORTC 30904. The median clinical tumour size in the NCDB was 30 mm, similar to the 30-mm tumour size observed in the trial. The percentage of men was 59.4% in the NCDB vs 65.8% in EORTC 30904 trial (P < 0.001). The NCDB cohort was healthier, with 70.03% patients having no comorbidity vs 62.8% in the trial (P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with clear-cell histology was 81.9% in the NCDB vs 62.9% in the trial (P < 0.001). The trial did not report data on race, while the NCDB had 15.6% non-white patients. Finally, the percentage of patients with high-grade disease (Fuhrman grade ≥3) was 21.1% in the NCDB vs 11.2% in the EORTC 30904 (P < 0.001; Table 1). Notably, in the EORTC 30904 trial, there was no central pathology review.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of 391 clinically and pathologically eligible patients randomized to nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) or radical nephrectomy (RN) in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trial 30904 compared with 40 762 patients within the National Cancer Database with similar inclusion/exclusion criteria, who underwent NSS vs RN, between 2004 and 2013
Variable EORTC 30904 trial NCDB P
  1. EORTC 30904, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trial 30904; IQR, interquartile range; NCDB, National Cancer Database.

Study period 1992–2003 2004–2013
Number of patients clinically and pathologically eligible 391 90 844
Median (IQR) age, years 62 (not provided) 60 (51–69)
Median (IQR) clinical tumour size, mm 30 (not provided) 30 (21–40)
Men, % 65.8 59.44 <0.001
Race Not provided Non-white 15.6%
Free of comorbid disease, % 62.8 70.03 <0.001
Clear cell histology, % 62.9 81.9 <0.001
Tumour grade, %
1 22.30 18.08 <0.001
2 66.60 60.78
3 10.50 19.63
4 0.70 1.51
Surgical approach (recorded in NCDB since 2010, n = 15 604), %
Open 100 39.4 <0.001
Robotic 0 34.6
Laparoscopic 0 23.5

Several important observations emerge from these results. First, age and tumour size were similar in the EORTC 30904 trial and the NCDB. These two variables are the most important determinants of mortality and stage of disease, respectively, which implies that the trial was able to recruit patients representative of those seen in ‘real-world’ clinical practice.

Second, there was a higher incidence of high-grade disease and clear-cell histology in the NCDB cohort compared with the EORTC 30904 trial. In other words, patients in the NCDB had more aggressive tumours as compared with patients in the trial. Arguably, such patients are better served with RN, which has a higher probability of completely eradicating the tumour. The survival benefit of RN observed in the trial might therefore be even more evident in clinical practice, where a higher proportion of patients harbour unpredictable aggressive disease.

Finally, the EORTC seems to have recruited patients with a higher comorbidity burden than is generally observed in clinical practice. The significance of this finding is controversial. On the one hand, it might be argued that the higher background mortality of the cohort could have masked the potential OS benefit of NSS by offering this treatment method to sicker patients with limited life expectancy [7]. On the other hand, preserving renal function might be even more important in sicker patients, who have the burden of other comorbidities [8].

The present study has some limitations. An inherent limitation of the NCDB is the lack of information on the performance status of patients. Second, the comparison was between two cohorts separated in time. The mode of treatment and thus, patient selection might have changed over time. The NCDB provides information about surgical approach starting in 2010, and indeed open surgery was performed in only 39.4% of the cases compared with 100% in the trial. More than 15% of patients in the NCDB had missing tumour grade compared with 4% in the trial; however, this proportion was equally distributed between patients undergoing RN and PN in the NCDB (data not shown). Despite the limitations, these findings are significant in the context of the recent debate on contemporary guidelines recommending NSS ‘wherever possible’ in patients with a normal contralateral kidney [9].

In conclusion, our results indicate that, although the EORTC 30904 cohort had somewhat different baseline characteristics than ‘real-world’ patients with small renal masses, none of these differences seem to have the potential to significantly alter the outcomes of the trial. The latter should therefore be considered generalizable to contemporary North American patients with renal masses ≤5 cm.

 

Article of the Week: Impact of warm ischaemia time on postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy for clinical T1 renal cell carcinoma

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Impact of warm ischaemia time on postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy for clinical T1 renal cell carcinoma: a propensity score-matched study

Hakmin Lee*, Byung D. Song*, Seok-Soo Byun*, Sang E. Lee* and Sung K. Hong*
*Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, and Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

 

Objectives

To analyse the effect of prolonged warm ischaemia time (WIT) on long-term renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN), as controversy still exists as to whether prolonged WIT adversely affects the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after PN.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed data from 1816 patients who underwent PN for a clinical T1 renal tumour. The propensity scores for prolonged WIT were calculated with the shorter WIT group (<30 min) matched to the longer WIT group (≥30 min) in a 2:1 ratio. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors for occurrence of postoperative CKD [defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2] and major renal function deterioration (MRFD; defined as an eGFR decrease of ≥25% postoperatively).

Results

After propensity score matching, there was no significant difference in CKD-free survival between the two WIT groups (P = 0.787). Furthermore, longer WIT did not show any significant associations with postoperative CKD-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.002, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.989–1.015; P = 0.765) and MRFD-free survival (HR 1.014, 95% CI 1.000–1.028; P = 0.055). From further subgroup analyses using more specific WIT thresholds (≤20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, ≥50 min) and status of preoperative CKD, no significant differences were noted in CKD and MRFD-free survival amongst the subgroups (all P > 0.05).

Conclusions

Prolonged WIT was not associated with increased incidence of CKD or MRFD after PN.

Article of the Week: Management and Outcomes of RMC

Every Week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

Finally, the third post under the Article of the Week heading on the homepage will consist of additional material or media. This week we feature a video discussing the paper.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Management and outcomes of patients with renal medullary carcinoma: a multicentre collaborative study

Amishi Y. Shah*, Jose A. Karam*, Gabriel G. Malouf, Priya Rao*, Zita D. Lim*, Eric Jonasch*, Lianchun Xiao*, Jianjun Gao*, Ulka N. VaishampayanDaniel Y. Heng§, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Elizabeth A. Guancial**, Chunkit Fung**, Stefanie R. Lowas
††, Pheroze Tamboli*, Kanishka Sircar*, Surena F. Matin*, W. Kimryn Rathmell§§, Christopher G. Wood* and Nizar M. Tannir*

 

*MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, University Pierre and Marie Curie,
Paris, France, Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI, USA, §Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, **University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, ††University of Nebraska Medical Center and
Childrens Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, NE, and §§Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, US

 

Abstract

Objective

To describe the management strategies and outcomes of patients with renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) and characterise predictors of overall survival (OS).

Patients and Methods

RMC is a rare and aggressive malignancy that afflicts young patients with sickle cell trait; there are limited data on management to date. This is a study of patients with RMC who were treated in 2000–2015 at eight academic institutions in North America and France. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate OS, measured from initial RMC diagnosis to date of death. Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of OS.

Results

In all, 52 patients (37 males) were identified. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 28 (9–48) years and 49 patients (94%) had stage III/IV. The median OS for all patients was 13.0 months and 38 patients (75%) had nephrectomy. Patients who underwent nephrectomy had superior OS compared to patients who were treated with systemic therapy only (median OS 16.4 vs 7.0 months, P < 0.001). In all, 45 patients received chemotherapy and 13 (29%) had an objective response; 28 patients received targeted therapies, with 8-week median therapy duration and no objective responses. Only seven patients (13%) survived for >24 months.

Conclusions

RMC carries a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy provides palliation and remains the mainstay of therapy, but <20% of patients survive for >24 months, underscoring the need to develop more effective therapy for this rare tumour. In this study, nephrectomy was associated with improved OS.

Editorial: New Strategies for Treating RMC

In the current issue of BJUI, Shah et al. [1] present a multi-institutional study of 52 patients with renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) collected over a 15-year period. This notoriously lethal and rare form of kidney cancer, associated with sickle cell trait and disease, usually affects young adults. In the study, the median age was 28 years, 94% of the patients presented with stage 3 or 4 disease, and the median overall survival was only 13 months. Nephrectomy, performed in 75% of patients, as opposed to systemic therapy alone, was associated with longer survival (16.4 vs 7.0 months). Of the 45 patients who received platinum- or carboplatinum-based systemic chemotherapy, 13 (29%) had an objective response, while there was no objective response in 28 patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents, which are highly effective in conventional clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney. Only seven patients survived >2 years, with two long-term survivors at 5 and 9 years after nephrectomy and various combinations of systemic therapy.

Recent reports suggest new insight into this lethal form of kidney cancer, raising hope about the development of effective systemic agents. Calderaro et al. [2] used gene expression profiling, array genomic hybridization, and RNA and whole-exome sequencing to study frozen tissue in five patients with RMC. They reported an interchromosomal balanced translocation that disrupts the SMARCB1 gene, a tumour suppressor on chromosome 22 encoding BAF47 protein, which impairs the SWI/SNF complex regulating chromatin remodelling, which, in turn, leads to increased cyclin D transcription and downstream over-expression of the transcriptional regulator EZH2. EZH2 is the enzymatic subunit of the PRC2 complex and its histone methylation function. EZH2 also has a PRC2-independent role in transcriptional activation and can methylate a number of non-histone proteins. Over-expression of EZH2 can lead to cancer by changing expression of tumour suppressor (pRB) and DNA-damage repair genes. EZH2 over-expression and loss of function mutations are associated with a diverse group of cancers including liver, breast, prostate, endometrial, melanoma, bladder and lymphoma, none of which are as rare as RMC but in which targetable agents can be tested for their ability to disrupt this pathway [3]. Interestingly, SMARCB1 gene truncating and or deletion mutations have been reported in the equally rare and lethal paediatric rhabdoid tumour of the kidney [4] and loss of immunoexpression of SMARCB1 reported in the clinically aggressive collecting duct renal cancer, which is morphologically similar to and often difficult to distinguish from RMC [5].

A number of small-molecule compounds able to target both EZH2 and PRC2 complex are currently undergoing preclinical testing (i.e. DZNEP, E11, EP2005687), phase I trials (GSK126), and phase II trials (EPZ-648, Tazemetostat) [3]. A phase II multicentre study of tazemetostat, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of EZH2, is underway and accruing patients with rare tumours with abnormalities in this pathway, including synovial-cell sarcoma, RMC and rhabdoid tumour of the kidney, for which there are no standard therapies [6]. Contemporary genomic research has great potential to identify such critical oncogenic pathways, shared in both rare and more common malignancies, with the potential for effective drugs to be designed to improve the grave prognosis of RMC and related cancers.

Paul Russo
Weill Cornell School of Medicine Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York NY USA

 

 

References

 

1 Shah AYKaram JAMalouf GG et al. Management and outcomes of patients with renal medullary carcinoma: a multicentre collaborative study. BJU Int2017; 120: 78292.

 

2 Calderaro JMasliah-Planchon JRicher W et al. Balanced translocations disrupting SMARCB1 are hallmark recurrent genetic alterations in renal medullary carcinomas. Eur Urol2016; 69: 105561.

 

3 Kim KHRoberts CWM. Targeting EZH2 in cancer. Nat Med 2016; 22: 128– 34

 

4 Versteege I, Sevenet NLange J et al. Truncating mutations of hSNF5/INI1 in aggressive paediatric cancer. Nature 1998; 394:2036

 

5 Elwood H1Chaux ASchultz L et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of SMARCB1/INI-1 expression in collecting duct carcinoma. Urology 2011;78: 474

 

 

Video: Management and Outcomes of RMC

Management and outcomes of patients with renal medullary carcinoma: a multicentre collaborative study

Amishi Y. Shah*, Jose A. Karam*, Gabriel G. Malouf, Priya Rao*, Zita D. Lim*, Eric Jonasch*, Lianchun Xiao*, Jianjun Gao*, Ulka N. VaishampayanDaniel Y. Heng§, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Elizabeth A. Guancial**, Chunkit Fung**, Stefanie R. Lowas
††, Pheroze Tamboli*, Kanishka Sircar*, Surena F. Matin*, W. Kimryn Rathmell§§, Christopher G. Wood* and Nizar M. Tannir*

 

*MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, University Pierre and Marie Curie,
Paris, France, Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI, USA, §Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Canada, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, **University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, ††University of Nebraska Medical Center and
Childrens Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, NE, and §§Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, US

 

Abstract

Objective

To describe the management strategies and outcomes of patients with renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) and characterise predictors of overall survival (OS).

Patients and Methods

RMC is a rare and aggressive malignancy that afflicts young patients with sickle cell trait; there are limited data on management to date. This is a study of patients with RMC who were treated in 2000–2015 at eight academic institutions in North America and France. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate OS, measured from initial RMC diagnosis to date of death. Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of OS.

Results

In all, 52 patients (37 males) were identified. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 28 (9–48) years and 49 patients (94%) had stage III/IV. The median OS for all patients was 13.0 months and 38 patients (75%) had nephrectomy. Patients who underwent nephrectomy had superior OS compared to patients who were treated with systemic therapy only (median OS 16.4 vs 7.0 months, P < 0.001). In all, 45 patients received chemotherapy and 13 (29%) had an objective response; 28 patients received targeted therapies, with 8-week median therapy duration and no objective responses. Only seven patients (13%) survived for >24 months.

Conclusions

RMC carries a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy provides palliation and remains the mainstay of therapy, but <20% of patients survive for >24 months, underscoring the need to develop more effective therapy for this rare tumour. In this study, nephrectomy was associated with improved OS.

Video: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for inoperable primary kidney cancer

Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for inoperable primary kidney cancer

Abstract

Objective

To assess the feasibility and safety of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients unsuitable for surgery. Secondary objectives were to assess oncological and functional outcomes.

Materials and Methods

This was a prospective interventional clinical trial with institutional ethics board approval. Inoperable patients were enrolled, after multidisciplinary consensus, for intervention with informed consent. Tumour response was defined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicities were recorded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Time-to-event outcomes were described using the Kaplan–Meier method, and associations of baseline variables with tumour shrinkage was assessed using linear regression. Patients received either single fraction of 26 Gy or three fractions of 14 Gy, dependent on tumour size.

Results

Of 37 patients (median age 78 years), 62% had T1b, 35% had T1a and 3% had T2a disease. One patient presented with bilateral primaries. Histology was confirmed in 92%. In total, 33 patients and 34 kidneys received all prescribed SABR fractions (89% feasibility). The median follow-up was 24 months. Treatment-related grade 1–2 toxicities occurred in 26 patients (78%) and grade 3 toxicity in one patient (3%). No grade 4–5 toxicities were recorded and six patients (18%) reported no toxicity. Freedom from local progression, distant progression and overall survival rates at 2 years were 100%, 89% and 92%, respectively. The mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 55 mL/min, which decreased to 44 mL/min at 1 and 2 years (P < 0.001). Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio correlated to % change in tumour size at 1 year, r2 = 0.45 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The study results show that SABR for primary RCC was feasible and well tolerated. We observed encouraging cancer control, functional preservation and early survival outcomes in an inoperable cohort. Baseline neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio may be predictive of immune-mediated response and warrants further investigation.

Editorial: Stereotactic radiotherapy for primary renal cell carcinoma: time for larger-scale prospective studies

A number of important trends in kidney cancer diagnosis have emerged in recent decades, including the increasing detection of renal tumours in older patients with more comorbidities. In the UK in 2012–2014, 50% of new cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 years and over. Whilst many of these lesions are incidental small renal masses suitable for active surveillance, the dilemma of how to manage the higher-risk lesion (rapid growth kinetics, larger size, symptomatic lesion) is increasingly encountered. Surgical management may pose an unacceptable risk of morbidity, mortality or dialysis, yet these patients may live long enough to experience the consequences of disease progression. Thermal ablation is an option for small cortical tumours (≤3 cm), but there are limitations for larger or centrally located tumours.

In this issue of BJUI, Siva and colleagues [1] report promising early efficacy and toxicity data using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for the treatment of primary RCC in this difficult cohort. SABR is a non-invasive treatment that delivers very high doses of radiation over one to five outpatient sessions. It uses advanced motion management, radiation planning and image guidance techniques to ensure delivery of an ablative dose with millimetre precision. Survival benefits with stereotactic radiosurgery have been demonstrated in patients with solitary brain metastases [2], and SABR is now an accepted standard of care for patients with medically inoperable early-stage lung cancer [3]. Randomized phase III trials are currently under way, testing SABR against standard of care in primary prostate (clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT01584258) and liver cancer (NCT01730937) and in the oligometastatic setting (NCT02759783). Historically considered radio-resistant, both pre-clinical and clinical data now support the sensitivity of RCC to high-dose per fraction radiotherapy, as used in SABR [4].

The study by Siva and colleagues is one of the largest, early-phase, prospective studies of SABR for primary RCC to date, accruing 37 patients with cT1a–cT2a RCC not suitable for other therapies. Importantly, this was not a cohort of incidentally detected small renal masses. The majority (65%) of tumours were >4 cm (median 4.8 cm), were growing on surveillance or symptomatic, and were biopsy-proven. The inclusion of enlarging T1a tumours is not unreasonable. A recent analysis of patients with localized T1a kidney cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare data reported an excess of kidney cancer deaths for non-surgically managed patients aged >75 years, highlighting how difficult it can be to find the right balance between active and expectant management in this group [5]. Indeed 11% of patients in the present study by Siva et al. developed distant metastases by 2 years.

In the present study, tumours <5 cm received a single 26-Gy fraction of SABR, whilst tumours >5 cm received 42 Gy over three fractions. Whilst acknowledging a number of uncertainties in modelling, this should equate to an equivalent biological dose in excess of 100 Gy. The authors found that delivering this SABR regimen was feasible and well tolerated with one grade 3 toxicity (transient fatigue) and no grade 4–5 toxicities. Most patients sustained only transient minor side effects (78%) or no treatment-related side effects (18%). The mean baseline estimated GFR was 55 mL/min, which decreased to 44 mL/min at 1 year, and was maintained for those with 2 years follow-up.

Similarly, short-term efficacy appears promising. With a median follow-up of 24 months, freedom from local progression at 2 years was 100%, with one patient subsequently progressing locally with concurrent distant metastases 28 months after treatment. Local progression was defined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. This is a pragmatic definition and takes into account the challenges in interpreting standard imaging after SABR and the difficulties in obtaining and interpreting repeat biopsies in this cohort. Similarly to the study by Sun et al. [6] it appears that stable or partial radiological responses will predominate in the early years after SABR and, unlike thermal ablation, changes in enhancement patterns can be very slow to evolve.

Longer-term follow-up is required to confirm these promising tumour control and nephron preservation rates, in addition to evaluating longer-term late effects. To that end, the present study has provided a platform for the authors to launch an international phase II clinical trial under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 15.03 FASTRACK, clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02613819). Larger-scale prospective studies are essential to confirm the efficacy and safety of this non-invasive, nephron-sparing, ablative technique and provide further information to help refine patient selection and develop better biomarkers of response.

David I. Pryor *† and Simon Wood†‡

 

*Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Wooloongabba, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, and Department of Urology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Wooloongabba, Qld, Australia

 

References

 

1 Siva S. Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for inoperable primary kidney cancer: a prospective clinical trial. BJU Int 2017; 120: 62330
 

 

2 Andrews DW, Scott CB , Sperduto PW et al. Whole brain radiation therapy with or without stereotactic radiosurgery boost for patients with  one to three brain metastases: phase III results of the RTOG 9508 randomised trial. Lancet (London, England) 2004; 363: 166572

 

4 De Meerleer G, Khoo V, Escudier B et al. Radiotherapy for renal-cell carcinoma. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: e1707

 

 

6 Sun MR, Brook A, Powell MF et al. Effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy on the growth kinetics and enhancement pattern of primary renal tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2016; 206: 54453

 

Article of the Week: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for inoperable primary kidney cancer: a prospective clinical trial

Every week the Editor-in-Chief selects an Article of the Week from the current issue of BJUI. The abstract is reproduced below and you can click on the button to read the full article, which is freely available to all readers for at least 30 days from the time of this post.

In addition to the article itself, there is an accompanying editorial written by a prominent member of the urological community. This blog is intended to provoke comment and discussion and we invite you to use the comment tools at the bottom of each post to join the conversation.

If you only have time to read one article this week, it should be this one.

Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy for inoperable primary kidney cancer: a prospective clinical trial

 

Shankar Siva*,, Daniel Pham*, Tomas Kron*,, Mathias Bressel*, Jacqueline Lam*, Teng Han Tan*, Brent Chesson*, Mark Shaw*, Sarat Chander*, Suki Gill*,Nicholas R. Brook§, Nathan Lawrentschuk*,, Declan G. Murphy*,† and Farshad Foroudi*,

 

*Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Vic., Australia, † Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. Australia, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands Perth, WA, Australia, §Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia, and Olivia Newton John Cancer Centre, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia

 

Abstract

Objective

To assess the feasibility and safety of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients unsuitable for surgery. Secondary objectives were to assess oncological and functional outcomes.

Materials and Methods

This was a prospective interventional clinical trial with institutional ethics board approval. Inoperable patients were enrolled, after multidisciplinary consensus, for intervention with informed consent. Tumour response was defined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicities were recorded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Time-to-event outcomes were described using the Kaplan–Meier method, and associations of baseline variables with tumour shrinkage was assessed using linear regression. Patients received either single fraction of 26 Gy or three fractions of 14 Gy, dependent on tumour size.

Results

Of 37 patients (median age 78 years), 62% had T1b, 35% had T1a and 3% had T2a disease. One patient presented with bilateral primaries. Histology was confirmed in 92%. In total, 33 patients and 34 kidneys received all prescribed SABR fractions (89% feasibility). The median follow-up was 24 months. Treatment-related grade 1–2 toxicities occurred in 26 patients (78%) and grade 3 toxicity in one patient (3%). No grade 4–5 toxicities were recorded and six patients (18%) reported no toxicity. Freedom from local progression, distant progression and overall survival rates at 2 years were 100%, 89% and 92%, respectively. The mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 55 mL/min, which decreased to 44 mL/min at 1 and 2 years (P < 0.001). Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio correlated to % change in tumour size at 1 year, r2 = 0.45 (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The study results show that SABR for primary RCC was feasible and well tolerated. We observed encouraging cancer control, functional preservation and early survival outcomes in an inoperable cohort. Baseline neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio may be predictive of immune-mediated response and warrants further investigation.

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