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Podcast from BJUI Knowledge: bladder function after in utero myelomeningocele repair

 


Paediatric urologist Antonio Macedo, author of e-learning module Postnatal bladder function after in utero repair of myelomeningocele: a literature review talks to Stephen Griffin.

BJUI Knowledge: The CPD portal for urologists

Comprehensive, trustworthy and easy to use e-learning platform for trainees, residents, consultants and all specialising in urology.

  • Accredited by the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh and the College of Surgeons of Hong Kong.
  • Approved by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

BJUI Knowledge is evidence-based, fully referenced and peer reviewed to ensure academic, scientific and editorial validity.

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Podcast from BJUI Knowledge: prostate cancer screening

 

Author Monique Roobol talks to associate editor Greg Shaw about screening for prostate cancer.

BJUI Knowledge: The CPD portal for urologists

Comprehensive, trustworthy and easy to use e-learning platform for trainees, residents, consultants and all specialising in urology.

  • Accredited by the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh and the College of Surgeons of Hong Kong.
  • Approved by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

BJUI Knowledge is evidence-based, fully referenced and peer reviewed to ensure academic, scientific and editorial validity.

 

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Thank You To All Our 2020 Peer Reviewers

We would particularly like to thank the following individuals who are the top reviewers for the journal in 2020, all with ≥10 reviews

Nathan Lawrentschuk Sima Porten
Tobias Klatte Roderick van den Bergh
Sigrid Carlsson Stephan Madersbacher
Riccardo Autorino Niranjan Sathianathen
Matthew Roberts Yair Lotan
Alexander Cole Asif Muneer

We are extremely grateful to all our reviewers for their time and hard work during an incredibly difficult year

Aastha Abdollah, Firas Abel, E. Abouassaly, Robert
Abrams, Paul Abreu, Leonardo Acher, Peter Adolfsson, Jan
Adshead, James Ahdoot, Michael Ahlawat, Rajesh Ahlgren, Johan
Ahluwalia, Puneet Ahmad, Imran Ahmed, Hashim Ahmed, Kamran
Aho, Tev Ajayi, Leye Al Jaafari, Feras Alam, Ridwan
Albersen, Maarten Albertsen, Peter Alhasso, Ammar Alifrangis, Constantine
Allaway, Matthew Aloj, Luigi Alzweri, Laith Aminsharifi, Alireza
Anderson, Christopher Anderson, Mark Anderson, Paul Andolfi, Ciro
Antonelli, Jodi Apostolidis, Apostolos Armitage, James Arndt, Volker
Arora, Sohrab Arsov, Christian Ashrafi, Akbar Assimos, Dean
Averbeck, Marcio Aydin, Abdullatif Baack Kukreja, Janet Baard, Joyce
Babjuk, Marek Badlani, Gopal H. Bahnson, Robert Bajic, Petar
Bajpai, Minu Balasubramanian, Adithya Ball, Mark Bandini, Marco
Bangma, Chris Barber, Neil Barod, Ravi Barrett, Tristan
Baumgarten, Adam Beard, David Becerra, Maria Becher, Edgardo
Bedke, Jens Behre, Hermann Beisland, Christian Belenchon, Ines
Bell, Richard Berglund, Anders Betschart, Cornelia Bex, Axel
Bhandari, Mahendra Bhat, Seetharam Bhatt, Jaimin Bhatt, Nikita
Bhindi, Bimal Bianchi, Daniele Bianchi, Lorenzo Birkhäuser, Frédéric
Birkhäuser, Veronika Biyani, Chandra Bjartell, Anders Blackmur, James
Blazeby, Jane Blecher, Gideon Blick, Christopher Blok, Bertil
Bloom, Jonathan Boddy, Jane Bogaert, Guy Bokhorst, Leonard
Bolgeri, Marco Bolton, Damien Boone, Timothy Borkowska, Edyta
Bose, Pradeep Boström, Peter Bratt, Ola Brehmer, Marianne
Brewin, James Brewster, Simon Briganti, Alberto Bromage, Steve
Brooks, Nathan Brouwer, Oscar Brown, Christian Brown, Matthew
Bryan, Richard Bryant, Richard Budäus, Lars Buffi, Nicolò
Bukavina, Laura Bultitude, Matthew Burgu, Berk Burkhard, Fiona
Butler, Santino Butow, Phyllis Byrne, Fiona Cadeddu, Jeffrey
Cahill, Declan Cai, Tommaso Caldamone, Anthony Camilleri, Philip
Campbell, Jeffrey Campeau, Lysanne Campi, Riccardo Canda, Abdullah Erdem
Canning, Douglas Cantiello, Francesco Capitanio, Umberto Capogrosso, Paolo
Cardozo, Linda Carlo, Buonerba Caroppo, Ettore Castiglione, Fabio
Castro-Diaz, David Cathcart, Paul Celia, Antonio Cellek, Selim
Cerruto, Maria Angela Challacombe, Ben Chancellor, Michael Chander, Sarat
Chandra, Ashish Chandra, Lizzie Chandrasekar, Thenappan Chang, David
Chapin, Brian Chapple, Christopher Chatta, Gurkamal Checcucci, Enrico
Chee, Justin Cheung, Douglas Chew, Ben Chi, Thomas
Chin, Joseph Chin, Kwang Chin, Peter Chin, Stephen
Chow, Ken Christopher, Nim Chuang, Yao-Chi Chun, Felix
Chung, Doreen Chung, Eric Clark, Jack Clemens, J. Quentin
Cohen, Ronald Collins, Justin Colquhoun, Alexandra Compérat, Eva
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Corcos, Jacques Cosker, Thomas Costello, Anthony Cotterill, Nikki
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Cresswell, Joanne Crockett, Matthew Cross, Brian Cruz, Célia
Cruz, Francisco Cui, Helen Culig, Zoran Cullen, Victoria
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Da Ros, Carlos Dabestani, Saeed Dahm, Philipp Dan, Woodcock
D’Andrea, David Daneshmand, Siamak Danila, Daniel Danuser, Hansjoerg
Darr, Christopher Dasgupta, Ranan Dauw, Casey Davies, Lucy
Davis, John De Giorgi, Ugo de la Taille, Alexandre De Meerleer, Gert
De Reijke, Theo M. De Win, Gunter Del Popolo, Giulio D’Elia, Carolina
Dell’Oglio, Paolo Delprado, Warick Denstedt, John Derweesh, Ithaar
Desai, Janak Desai, Mahesh Diamond, David Dinkelman-Smit, M.
Dmochowski, Roger Doizi, Steeve Donovan, Jenny Dragos, Laurian
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Eberli, Daniel Eddy, Ben Eden, Christopher Egawa, Shin
Egevad, Lars Ehdaie, Behfar Eichler, Martin Eisenberger, Mario
Eisner, Brian Elders, Andrew Eldred-Evans, David Elhage, Oussama
Ellis, Robert Elmamoun, Mamoun Elneil, Sohier Elsamra, Sammy
Elshal, Ahmed Elterman, Dean Emberton, Mark Engeler, Daniel
Enikeev, Dmitry Enting, Deborah Epstein, Jonathan Erickson, Andrew
Escudero, Lorena Eure, Gregg Everaert, Karel Everaerts, Wouter
Eversden, Elizabeth Eyre, David Falagario, Ugo Falcone, Marco
Faltas, Bishoy Feber, Andrew Fero, Katherine Ferro, Matteo
Ficarra, Vincenzo Fife, Kate Finazzi Agrò, Enrico Finch, William
Fletcher, Sean Fojecki, Grzegorz Friedlander, David Frydenberg, Mark
Furr, James Furrer, Marc G. Zaorsky, Nicholas Gacci, Mauro
Gadzhiev, Nariman Gadzinski, Adam Gakis, Georgios Galfano, Antonio
Gall, Zara Gallagher, Kevin Gallieni, Maurizio Gandaglia, Giorgio
Gao, Chuanyu Gearhart, John Geavlete, Petrisor Georgiades, Fanourios
Geurts, Nicolas Ghai, Sangeet Ghani, Khurshid Ghazi, Ahmed
Gianduzzo, Troy Giannantoni, Antonella Gietzmann, William Giganti, Francesco
Gilbert, James Gild, Philipp Giusti, Guido Gnanapragasam, Vincent
Goldenberg, Larry Goldman, Howard Goldsmith, Louise Golla, Vishnukamal
Gomes, Cristiano Gontero, Paulo Good, Daniel Goonewardene, Sanchia
Gordon, Stephen Gorin, Michael Graefen, Markus Granr, Aurelie
Gravas, Stavros Gregg, Justin Grilo, Nuno Groen, Jan
Gross, Oliver Gross, Tobias Grummet, Jeremy Gulati, Roman
Gurney, Howard Guru, Khurshid Guruli, Georgi Ha, Yun-Sok
Hackett, Geoff Hakenberg, Oliver Hakimi, A Ari Hamid, Rizwan
Hamm, Rebecca Han, Deok Hyun Han, Ping Handelsman, David
Hasan, Mudhar Hashad, Mohamed Mohie Eldin Hashimoto, Takeshi Hatakeyama, Shingo
Haug, Alexander Häuser, Lorine Hautmann, Richard E. Hayne, Dickon
Heck, Matthias Heer, Rakesh Hegarty, Paul K. Heidenreich, Axel
Heijnsdijk, Eveline Helfand, Brian Heller, Nick Hellstrom, Wayne
Henderson, John Hendry, Rob Henry, Ann Hensley, Patrick
Herkommer, Kathleen Hermanns, Thomas Herrmann, Thomas Hindley, Richard
Hofman, Michael Hollingsworth, John Holmberg, Lars Hosseini, Abolfazl
Houédé, Nadine Hounsome, Luke Hovens, Chris Howles, Sarah
Hu, Jim Hughes, Simon Hulson, Oliver Humphreys, Mitchell
Hung, Andrew Husmann, Douglas Hutel, Michael Hwang, Eu Chang
Igawa, Yasuhiko Ilg, Marcus Innos, Kaire Ishioka, Junichiro
Jambor, Ivan JC, Liao Johnson, Mark Johnston, Thomas
Jonasch, Eric Jones, James Joseph, Jean Joyce, Adrian
Jung, Helene Jung, Jae Hung Junker, Kerstin Kalejaiye, Ayo
Kamal, Wissam Kamat, Ashish Kamphuis, Guido Kaouk, Jihad
Kaplan, Steven Karakiewicz, Pierre Karam, Jose Karnes, R
Kasivisvanathan, Veeru Kassouf, Wassim Kastner, Christof Kates, Max
Kattan, Mike KAYA, ENGIN Kayes, Oliver Keam, Simon
Keanie, Julian Keeley, Frank Kekre, Nitin Keoghane, Stephen
Kessler, Thomas Khaki, Ali Khan, Muhammad Shamim Khetrapal, Pramit
Khochikar, Makarand Kim, Hyung Kim, Isaac Kimura, Shoji
Kirsch, Andrew J. Kishida, Takeshi Kiss, Bernhard Kitta, Takeya
Klein, Eric Klein, Robert Kliesch, Sabine Klotz, Laurence
Kneebone, Andrew Knight, Simon Knipper, Sophie Knoll, Thomas
Knudsen, Bodo Kobayashi, Takashi Kockelbergh, Roger KOGA, Fumitaka
Kondo, Tsunenori Konety, Badrinath Koo, Kyo Chul Korte, James
Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis Kotb, Ahmed Kovac, Evan Kozomara, Marko
Krambeck, Amy Kramer, Mario Kretschmer, Alexander Kriegmair, Maximilian
Kroeger, Nils Krokidis, Miltos Kulkarni, Meghana Kulkarni, Sanjay
Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Vivekanandan Kundu, Bibhas Kuo, Hann-Chorng
Kurithof-de Julio, Marianna Kutikov, Alex Kwan, Edmond Laguna, Pilar
Laird, Alexander Lallas, Costas Lam, Thomas Lam, Wayne
Lamb, Alastair Lamb, Benjamin Landman, Jaime Langenhuijsen, Johan
Lantz, Anna Larcher, Alessandro Lascano, Danny Laurentino, Sandra
Le Roux, Pieter Lec, Patrick Lee, Eugene Lee, Wai Gin
Leiber, Christian Leitner, Lorenz Lenfant, Louis Lenis, Andrew
Leow, Jeffrey Leppert, John Lerner, Lori Leung, Steve
Levine, Larry Lewington, Andrew Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi Liatsikos, Evangelos
Liau, Siong Lilja, Hans Liow, Elizabeth Lipkin, Michael
Lipshultz, Larry Liu, Jui-Ming Lo, Simon Loblaw, Andrew
Loeb, Stacy Lonergan, Peter Lopez, Francisco Lopez-Beltran, Antonio
Louie, Alexander Louie-Johnsun, Mark Love, Christopher Lovegrove, Catherine
Lucca, Ilaria Lughezzani, Giovanni Luiting, Henk Luk, Angus
Luo, Jun Luzzago, Stefano Ma, Runzhuo MacLennan, Sara
MacPherson, Ruth Madaan, Sanjeev Madersbacher, Helmut Magee, Diana
Mahal, Brandon Malde, Sachin Manecksha, Rustom Manley, Brandon
Mantica, Guglielmo Marchioni, Michele Margulis, Vitaly Mari, Andrea
Mariappan, Paramananthan Mariotti, Guilherme Mark, Stephen Marks, Leonard
Marra, Giancarlo Marshall, Ernie Martin, Richard Martini, Alberto
Masson-Lecomte, Alexandra Masterson, Timothy Matanhelia, Mudit Matin, Surena
Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Mattei, Agostino Maurer, Tobias Mazhar, Danish
Mazzone, Elio McCaig, Fiona McGrath, John Mcintosh, lachlan
McNeill, Alan Mehan, Nicholas Mehnert, Ulrich Mehrazin, Reza
Meijer, Richard Mejean, Arnaud Mendichovszky, Iosif Meng, Maxwell
Menogue, Stuart Menon, Mani Merseburger, Axel Mertens, Laura
Meyer, Christian Miah, Saiful Michel, Martin Michels, Lars
Miernik, Arkadiusz Millar, Jeremy Miller, Eric Miller, Nipor
Mills, Ian Minhas, Suks Mir, Maria Mistretta, Francesco
Mitchell, Catherine Mitchell, Tom Mitin, Timur Mitra, Anirban
Moch, Holger Molden-Hauer, Tristan Molina-Garrido, Maria-Jose Monastyrskaya, Katia
Monn, M Francesca Montorsi, Francesco Moon, Daniel Moore, Caroline
Moore, Katherine Mordasini, Livio Moretti, Kim Morita, Masashi
Moschini, Marco Moschovas, Marcio Mossanen, Matthew Mostafid, Hugh
Muhitch, Jason Mühlstädt, Sandra Muir, Gordon Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar
Mulders, Peter Mumtaz, Faiz Mundy, Anthony Murphy, Declan
Murray, Julia Murray, Katie Murtola, Teemu Musco, Stefania
Mushtaq, Imran Mynbaev, Ospan Nabi, Ghulam Nabi, Junaid
Nair, Rajesh Namdarian, Benjamin Narayan, Vikram Nathan, Senthil
Neal, Naomi Necchi, Andrea Nelson, Adam Netsch, Christopher
Neumeier, Vera Neves, Joana Nguyen, David-Dan Nguyen, Hao
Nichol, David Nickel, J. Curtis Nicol, David Nieboer, Daan
Nieto, Yago Nobrega, Richard Nonomura, Norio Nordhoff, Verena
Nottingham, Charles Nyame, Yaw Nzenza, Tatenda Oades, Grenville
O’Brien, Tim O’Brien, Timothy O’Connor, Kevin Oddens, Jorg
Oh, William Olsburgh, Jonathon Omer, Altan Ong, Wee
Osses, Daniël Osther, Palle O’Sullivan, Richard Oudard, Stéphane
Ouzaid, Idir Paciotti, Marco Page, Toby Pal, Sumanta
Paller, Channing Panebianco, Valeria Panicker, Jalesh Pannek, Jürgen
Pantuck, Allan Pariser, Joseph Parker, Chris Parnham, Arie
Partin, Alan Pasquier, David Patel, Hiten Patel, Keval
Patel, Manish Patel, Parth Patel, Uday Patel, Vipul
Patil, Vishal Patki, Prasad Patterson, Jake Pavlovich, Christian
Payne, Steve Pearce, Ian Pearle, Margaret Pecoraro, Angela
Penzkofer, Tobias Perera, Marlon Perez Fentes, Daniel Pérez, Daniel
Peters, Craig Peters, Inga Peters, Max Petros, Firas
Pettaway, Curtis Peyronnet, Benoit Pfail, John Pfister, David
Phé, Véronique Philip, Stuart Pierorazio, Phillip Ploumidis, Achilles
Pokorny, Morgan Pontari, Mike Pook, David Popert, Richard
Porcaro, Antonio Porpiglia, Francesco Porter, James Portis, Andrew
Poulsen, Mads Pradere, Benjamin Preminger, Glenn Presicce, Fabrizio
Preston, Mark Proietti, Silvia Protheroe, Andrew Pryor, David
Quarrier, Scott Radtke, Jan Philipp Ragab, Mostafa Rai, Bhavan
Raison, Nicholas Rajan, Prabhakar Rajan, Probhakaran Rakauskas, Arnas
Ralph, David Ramakrishnan, Venkat Ramasamy, Ranjith Ranasinghe, Weranja
Rane, Abhay Rannikko, Antti Rashid, Aso Omer Rashid, Prem
Rassweiler, Jens Rastinehad, Ardeshir Ratan, Hari Ratliff, Timothy
Rawal, Sudhir Razvi, Hassan Rees, Rowland Reeves, Fairleigh
Rehder, Peter Reisman, Yacov Reiter, Robert Remzi, Mesut
Reynard, John Richenberg, Jonathan Rider, Jennifer Rieken, Malte
Riggs, Stephen Rimmer, Yvonne Rink, Michael Roberts, William
Robinson, Brian Robinson, Dudley Robson, Craig Rocco, Bernardo
Rochester, Mark Roehrborn, Claus Rogers, Craig Roghmann, Florian
Rolevich, Alexander Romero Otero, Javier Rosario, Derek Rosier, Peter
Ross, Ashley Rossi, Sabrina Rottenberg, Giles Rovito, Michael
Rowe, Courtney Ruiz-Castañe, Eduardo Rukin, Nicholas Russell, Neil
Russo, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Paul Sabnis, Ravindra Sadeghi, Ramin
Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein Saeb-Parsy, Kasra Sahai, Arun Salami, Simpa
Salmon, Jonathan Salonia, Andrea Sammon, Jesse Sanchez-Salas, Rafael
Sangster, Philippa Sansone, Andrea Sarma, Aruna Satasivam, Prassannah
Satkunasivam, Raj Savovic, Jelena Schagdarsurengin, Undraga Schalken, Jack
Schartau, Patricia Scheiner, David Schenk, Jeannette Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd
Schneider, Florian Schneider, Marc Schurch, Brigitte Scriven, Sharon
Seisen, Thomas Sengupta, Shomik Sethi, Kapil Sethia, Krishna
Sfakianos, John Shabbir, Majed Shabbir, Majid Shah, Amishi
Shapiro, Daniel Sharma, Gyanendra Shaw, Greg Sheinfeld, Joel
Shi, Zhongjie Shiradkar, Rakesh Shoag, Jonathan Shoji, Sunao
Siddiqui, M Sievert, Karl-Dietrich Singla, Nirmish Siva, Shankar
Skipworth, Richard Skolarus, Ted Smith, Angela Smith, Phillip
Smyth, Lisa Soares, Ricardo Soave, Armin Soloway, Mark
Somani, Bhaskar Sonn, Geoffrey Sood, Akshay Soomro, Naeem
Sooriakumaran, Prasanna Soria, Francesco Sotelo, Rene Speakman, Mark
Speakman, MJ Spiess, Phillippe Sprenkle, Preston Srinivasan, Arun
Sripathi, Venkat Sriprasad, Seshadri Staehler, Michael Stai, Bethany
Stamatiou, Konstantinos Stark, Dan Stattin, Pär Stenzl, Arnulf
Steuber, Thomas Steyerberg, Ewout Stillebroer, Alexander Stinesen Kollberg, Karin
Stish, Bradley Stockler, Martin Stoffel, John Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe
Stone, Nelson Stratton, Kelly Strebel, Räto Stricker, Phillip
Sturch, Paul Suarez, Rodrigo Subramaniam, Ramnath Sullivan, Mark
Sur, Roger Taghizadeh, Arash Takeda, Toshikazu Tan, Hung-Jui
Tan, Wei Shen Tandogdu, Zafer Tang, Chad Teh, Jiasian
Tekgul, Serdar Teoh, Jeremy Terris, Martha K. Tewari, Ash
Thalmann, George Thiruchelvam, Nikesh Thomas, Charalampos Thomas, Johanna
Thomas, John Thomas, Kay Thomas, Raju Thompson, James
Thompson, Peter Thompson, Robert Thurairaja, Ramesh Tilki, Derya
Timilshina, Narhari Tiselius, Hans-Göran Todenhöfer, Tilman Toren, Paul
Torinic, Jure Tortolero, Leonardo Tosoian, Jeffrey Touijer, Karim
Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Tran, Ben Tran, Maxine Traxer, Olivier
Trenti, Emanuela Tubaro, Andrea Tully, Karl Turkbey, Baris
Turnbull, Arran Turney, Ben Tuthill, Mark Tyerman, Kay
Ukimura, Osamu Unwala, Darius Urkmez, Ahmet Ursprung, Stephan
Usher-Smith, Juliet Van der Aa, Frank van der Kwast, Theo van der Poel, Henk
Van Hemelrijck, Mieke van Koeveringe, Gommert van Leeuwen, Pim van Moorselaar, Jeroen
van Rhijn, Bas van Rij, Simon Vanharanta, Sakari Vasdev, Nikhil
Vasudev, Naveen Veal, Gareth Venderbos, Lionne Verrill, Clare
Vickers, Andrew Vince, Randy Wagenlehner, Florian Walter, Matthias
Walz, Jochen Ward, John Warren, Anne Washington III, Samuel
Watkin, Nick Watson, Graham Watson, William Weber, Manuel
Welk, Blayne Weston, Michael Wetherell, David Whitehead, David
Wibmer, Andreas Williams, Andrew Williams, James Williams, Michael
Williams, Stephen Willis, Susan Wilson, Steven Wischmann, T.
Wiseman, Oliver Witjes, Fred Witjes, J. Wöllner, Jens
Wong, Lih-Ming Woo, Henry Wood, Dan Worst, Thomas
Wylie, Kevan Wysock, James Xylinas, Evanguelos Yamada, Yasutaka
Yamamoto, Hide Yang, Bing Yang, Bob Yang, David
Yaxley, John Ye, Dingwei Yong, Cissy Young, Matthew
Young, Robin Zainal Abidin, Zainal Adwin Zakri, Rhana Zaorsky, Nicholas
Zargar Shoshtari, Kamran Zargar, Homi Zhao, Lee Zhong, P.
Zhu, Gang Zigeuner, Richard Zimmern, Philippe Zlotta, Alexandre
Znaor, Ariana Zorn, Kevin

Residents’ Podcast: Pharmacological interventions for treating CPP

Part of the BURST/BJUI Podcast Series

Nikita Bhatt is a Specialist Trainee in Urology in the East of England Deanery and a BURST Committee member @BURSTUrology

 

Pharmacological interventions for treating chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a Cochrane systematic review

Juan V.A. Franco*, Tarek Turk, Jae Hung Jung, Yu-Tian Xiao§, Stanislav Iakhno, Federico Ignacio Tirapegui**, Virginia Garrote†† and Valeria Vietto‡‡
 
*Argentine Cochrane Centre, Instituto Universitario Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, Department of Urology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea, §Department of Urology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai,
China, University of Tromso, Tromsdalen, Norway, **Urology Division, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, ††Biblioteca Central, Instituto Universitario Hospital Italiano, and ‡‡Family and Community Medicine Service, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
 
Read the full article

Abstract

Objective

To assess the effects of pharmacological therapies for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

Patients and Methods

We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases, trial registries, grey literature and conference proceedings with no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. The date of the latest search of all databases was July 2019. We included randomised controlled trials. Inclusion criteria were men with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS. We included all available pharmacological interventions. Two review authors independently classified studies and abstracted data from the included studies, performed statistical analyses and rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. The primary outcomes were prostatitis symptoms and adverse events. The secondary outcomes were sexual dysfunction, urinary symptoms, quality of life, anxiety and depression, however, this one can be easily handle using Observer’s CBD hemp flower.

Fig. 1. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram.

Results

We included 99 unique studies in 9119 men with CP/CPPS, with assessments of 16 types of pharmacological interventions. Most of our comparisons included short‐term follow‐up information. The median age of the participants was 38 years. Most studies did not specify their funding sources; 21 studies reported funding from pharmaceutical companies. Many patients prefer using natural medicine like the best CBD oil list here on this site.

We found low‐ to very low‐quality evidence that α‐blockers may reduce prostatitis symptoms based on a reduction in National Institutes of Health – Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH‐CPSI) scores of >2 (but <8) with an increased incidence of minor adverse events such as dizziness and hypotension. Moderate‐ to low‐quality evidence indicates that 5α‐reductase inhibitors, antibiotics, anti‐inflammatories, and phytotherapy probably cause a small decrease in prostatitis symptoms and may not be associated with a greater incidence of adverse events. Intraprostatic botulinum toxin A (BTA) injection may cause a large reduction in prostatitis symptoms with procedure‐related adverse events (haematuria), but pelvic floor muscle BTA injection may not have the same effects (low‐quality evidence). Allopurinol may also be ineffective for reducing prostatitis symptoms (low‐quality evidence). We assessed a wide range of interventions involving traditional Chinese medicine; low‐quality evidence showed they may reduce prostatitis symptoms without an increased incidence in adverse events.

Moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence indicates that the following interventions may be ineffective for the reduction of prostatitis symptoms: anticholinergics, Escherichia coli lysate (OM‐89), pentosan, and pregabalin. Low‐ to very low‐quality evidence indicates that antidepressants and tanezumab may be ineffective for the reduction of prostatitis symptoms. Low‐quality evidence indicates that mepartricin and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may reduce prostatitis symptoms, without an increased incidence in adverse events.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of low‐ to very low‐quality evidence, this review found that some pharmacological interventions such as α‐blockers may reduce prostatitis symptoms with an increased incidence of minor adverse events such as dizziness and hypotension. Other interventions may cause a reduction in prostatitis symptoms without an increased incidence of adverse events while others were found to be ineffective.

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Covid-19: Collection of urology papers

Following on from our blog and recent podcasts on how the corona virus (Covid-19) is affecting urological operations in three countries: Italy, China and South Korea, we have put together a collection of the latest BJUI-published articles on the topic.

The first article by Connor and coworkers from Imperial Prostate discusses the potential costs to cancer patients if outpatient activity is cancelled by NHS trusts in order to free up resources for Covid-19 patients. They recommend that a virtual clinic consultation takes place in the first instance. So, what is life like in Isreal under COVID-19? Mostly quiet and a little surreal. In other words, very much like it is here. Israel was very aggressive in its early efforts to combat the spread of the virus, taking immediate measures to limit public gatherings, closing all non-essential businesses, and cancelling almost every major event in the country. Extreme yes, but also very safe.

The second article is by Ahmed, Hayat and Dasgupta from King’s Health Partners, London UK and discusses the national situation as of the end of March 2020: all non-urgent elective surgical procedures have been put on hold for three months to free up hospital beds and theatre staff; the discharge process for surgical inpatients has been accelerated and staff are being redeployed from non-essential services. But what impact will this have on the mental health of those patients missing out on treatment for their infertility or incontinence? And how are conditions categorized? The Cleveland Clinic Urology department has developed a five-point scale to aid in risk-stratifying patients – the following table is a more general version.

Surgical ProcedureSummary of Impact of COVID-19 on selected Urological procedures
Endoscopic/Outpatient procedures Diagnostic work should be avoided where possible, only emergency procedures under local anesthetic ideally.  Only urgent outpatient procedures should be carried out, these include biopsies of the prostate, cystoscopies for suspected bladder malignancy or hematuria.
Open/Laparoscopic   -Only urgent procedures, assessment for COVID-19 should be carried out, reduce chances of the need for post-surgery critical care. Full personal protection equipment should be worn. Urgent procedures may include trauma, ureteric stones, torsion and high-risk cancer patients
-The safety of carrying out laparoscopic work remains undetermined 
-The merits of local versus general anesthetic should be considered on a case by case basis if applicable 
Selected points on general theatre safety -The number of staff in theatre should be minimised and all must wear personal protective equipment in full with visors
-Positive pressurisation should be put on hold in theatre during a procedure and only 20 minutes after the patient has left the theatre, should it be restarted
– Need for COVID 19 testing of the patients and the clinical team prior to the procedure

Table 1. Adapted from RCS Intercollegiate General Surgery Guidance on COVID-19 (https://www.rcseng.ac.uk/coronavirus/joint-guidance-for-surgeons-v2/) and BJUI “COVID-19 and Urology” blog. 

Again, the idea of virtual clinics is raised as is the future training of medical and surgical students to enable them to be quickly deployed in the case of another pandemic, and a suggestion for parallel healthcare systems.

Testing, of course, is also of paramount importance.

 

In a comprehensive review of the situation as of the end of March 2020, Bernardo Rocco and co-workers describe what we know about the SARS-CoV-2 virus so far and what has been done, at least within Europe, to cope with the pandemic.  

It is thought that kidney cells are particularly prone to invasion by the virus, as evidenced by the numbers of kidney dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, and this may be due to the presence of angiotensin-converting 2 enzyme receptors on a small percentage (2-4%) of these cells to which the SARS-CoV-2 virus has an affinity.

The article further discusses the situation for medical students, transplant clinics and oncology, focussing on China, Italy and the UK. It also outlines extra precautions to take to limit virus transmission given the unknowns about its presence in blood, urine and faeces.

Returning to the subject of medical students, in particular in Italy, this paper by Porpiglia and coworkers explains that residents are unable to practise as the areas in which they usually work have been suspended (benign pathologies, lower urinary tract surgery and andrology), as have case meetings and outpatient clinics, and major surgery is being carried out by senior colleagues. Alternative teaching methods, via video link, are being introduced, e.g. surgeryinmotion-school.org, a well-established website showing recorded and live surgeries. The use of webinars for presentation of cases and social media, such as Twitter’s Journal Club, allow discussions to take place. Daily staff meetings can also take place via the web.

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